Egyptian Civilization dates back to prehistoric times.
It was presided over by a long succession of Pharaohs who were considered Divine because they were destined to become Gods upon their deaths when they would join God in the skies above Egypt.
The first Pharaoh was King Menes who established the first Dynasty in 3100 BC, and began the period in Egyptian history called the Old Kingdom.
Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single Kingdom with its Capital at Memphis, and this Ancient story of Egypt’s founding may be recorded on the Narmer Palette.
However, after about 100 Years, the Pharaohs grew weak and swathes of Egyptian territory fell under the Command of separate Tribal Kingdoms.
This period of turmoil is known as the first Intermediate Period, and it only ended with the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty under Pharaoh Mentuhotep I .
Pharaoh Mentuhotep I reunited Egypt once again, and established a new Capital at Thebes in what has become known as the Middle Kingdom.
However, the Middle Kingdom also declined during a period known as the Second Intermediate Period when Egypt was split in two once again until 1550 BC when the Pharaohs of the 17th and 16th dynasties reunited Egypt under the New Kingdom.
By 1070 BC however, the Pharaohs were once again losing control as Egypt became periodically fragmented during the Third Intermediate period.
Indigenous Egyptian rule continued to decline with attacks from the East particularly from the Assyrians who weakened Egypt until it was finally conquered and reunited in 332 BC by the Greek under Alexander the Great who established his new capital at Alexandria.
Following Alexander’s death, Ptolemy one of Alexander’s Generals became the first of a Greek line of Pharaohs known as the Ptolemaic Dynasty which lasted for about 300 years until the reign of Cleopatra when Egypt was integrated into the Roman Empire after the Battle of Actium.
All in all, Egypt’s history can be divided into at least 30 Dynasties which do not include the Roman or Ptolemaic Dynasties.
Today the mysteries and riddles of Ancient Egypt like the Sphinx and Giza Pyramids continue to fascinate Historians and Independent Researchers who interpret Egyptian History in very different but interesting ways.
Nevertheless, whichever position one adopts, there can never be any dispute about the importance of Egypt and the legacy it bequeathed to Civilization.