Complete Athenian Constitution

athens constitution
Fulll Text of the Athennian Constitution, an important document that changed world History by revolutionising Greek Politics.

The Athenian Constitution


Part 1 
...[They were tried] by a court empanelled from among the noble families,
and sworn upon the sacrifices. The part of accuser was taken by Myron.
They were found guilty of the sacrilege, and their bodies were cast
out of their graves and their race banished for evermore. In view
of this expiation, Epimenides the Cretan performed a purification
of the city. 
Part 2
After this event there was contention for a long time between the
upper classes and the populace. Not only was the constitution at this
time oligarchical in every respect, but the poorer classes, men, women,
and children, were the serfs of the rich. They were known as Pelatae
and also as Hectemori, because they cultivated the lands of the rich
at the rent thus indicated. The whole country was in the hands of
a few persons, and if the tenants failed to pay their rent they were
liable to be haled into slavery, and their children with them. All
loans secured upon the debtor's person, a custom which prevailed until
the time of Solon, who was the first to appear as the champion of
the people. But the hardest and bitterest part of the constitution
in the eyes of the masses was their state of serfdom. Not but what
they were also discontented with every other feature of their lot;
for, to speak generally, they had no part nor share in anything.
Part 3
Now the ancient constitution, as it existed before the time of Draco,
was organized as follows. The magistrates were elected according to
qualifications of birth and wealth. At first they governed for life,
but subsequently for terms of ten years. The first magistrates, both
in date and in importance, were the King, the Polemarch, and the Archon.
The earliest of these offices was that of the King, which existed
from ancestral antiquity. To this was added, secondly, the office
of Polemarch, on account of some of the kings proving feeble in war;
for it was on this account that Ion was invited to accept the post
on an occasion of pressing need. The last of the three offices was
that of the Archon, which most authorities state to have come into
existence in the time of Medon. Others assign it to the time of Acastus,
and adduce as proof the fact that the nine Archons swear to execute
their oaths 'as in the days of Acastus,' which seems to suggest that
it was in his time that the descendants of Codrus retired from the
kingship in return for the prerogatives conferred upon the Archon.
Whichever way it may be, the difference in date is small; but that
it was the last of these magistracies to be created is shown by the
fact that the Archon has no part in the ancestral sacrifices, as the
King and the Polemarch have, but exclusively in those of later origin.
So it is only at a comparatively late date that the office of Archon
has become of great importance, through the dignity conferred by these
later additions. The Thesmothetae were many years afterwards, when
these offices had already become annual, with the object that they
might publicly record all legal decisions, and act as guardians of
them with a view to determining the issues between litigants. Accordingly
their office, alone of those which have been mentioned, was never
of more than annual duration. 
Such, then, is the relative chronological precedence of these offices.
At that time the nine Archons did not all live together. The King
occupied the building now known as the Boculium, near the Prytaneum,
as may be seen from the fact that even to the present day the marriage
of the King's wife to Dionysus takes place there. The Archon lived
in the Prytaneum, the Polemarch in the Epilyceum. The latter building
was formerly called the Polemarcheum, but after Epilycus, during his
term of office as Polemarch, had rebuilt it and fitted it up, it was
called the Epilyceum. The Thesmothetae occupied the Thesmotheteum.
In the time of Solon, however, they all came together into the Thesmotheteum.
They had power to decide cases finally on their own authority, not,
as now, merely to hold a preliminary hearing. Such then was the arrangement
of the magistracies. The Council of Areopagus had as its constitutionally
assigned duty the protection of the laws; but in point of fact it
administered the greater and most important part of the government
of the state, and inflicted personal punishments and fines summarily
upon all who misbehaved themselves. This was the natural consequence
of the facts that the Archons were elected under qualifications of
birth and wealth, and that the Areopagus was composed of those who
had served as Archons; for which latter reason the membership of the
Areopagus is the only office which has continued to be a life-magistracy
to the present day. 
Part 4
Such was, in outline, the first constitution, but not very long after
the events above recorded, in the archonship of Aristaichmus, Draco
enacted his ordinances. Now his constitution had the following form.
The franchise was given to all who could furnish themselves with a
military equipment. The nine Archons and the Treasurers were elected
by this body from persons possessing an unencumbered property of not
less than ten minas, the less important officials from those who could
furnish themselves with a military equipment, and the generals [Strategi]
and commanders of the cavalry [Hipparchi] from those who could show
an unencumbered property of not less than a hundred minas, and had
children born in lawful wedlock over ten years of age. These officers
were required to hold to bail the Prytanes, the Strategi, and the
Hipparchi of the preceding year until their accounts had been audited,
taking four securities of the same class as that to which the Strategi
and the Hipparchi belonged. There was also to be a Council, consisting
of four hundred and one members, elected by lot from among those who
possessed the franchise. Both for this and for the other magistracies
the lot was cast among those who were over thirty years of age; and
no one might hold office twice until every one else had had his turn,
after which they were to cast the lot afresh. If any member of the
Council failed to attend when there was a sitting of the Council or
of the Assembly, he paid a fine, to the amount of three drachmas if
he was a Pentacosiomedimnus, two if he was a Knight, and One if he
was a Zeugites. The Council of Areopagus was guardian of the laws,
and kept watch over the magistrates to see that they executed their
offices in accordance with the laws. Any person who felt himself wronged
might lay an information before the Council of Areopagus, on declaring
what law was broken by the wrong done to him. But, as has been said
before, loans were secured upon the persons of the debtors, and the
land was in the hands of a few. 
Part 5
Since such, then, was the organization of the constitution, and the
many were in slavery to the few, the people rose against the upper
class. The strife was keen, and for a long time the two parties were
ranged in hostile camps against one another, till at last, by common
consent, they appointed Solon to be mediator and Archon, and committed
the whole constitution to his hands. The immediate occasion of his
appointment was his poem, which begins with the words: 
I behold, and within my heart deep sadness has claimed its place,
As I mark the oldest home of the ancient Ionian race 
Slain by the sword. 
In this poem he fights and disputes on behalf of each party in turn
against the other, and finally he advises them to come to terms and
put an end to the quarrel existing between them. By birth and reputation
Solon was one of the foremost men of the day, but in wealth and position
he was of the middle class, as is generally agreed, and is, indeed,
established by his own evidence in these poems, where he exhorts the
wealthy not to be grasping. 
But ye who have store of good, who are sated and overflow,
Restrain your swelling soul, and still it and keep it low:
Let the heart that is great within you be trained a lowlier way;
Ye shall not have all at your will, and we will not for ever obey.
Indeed, he constantly fastens the blame of the conflict on the rich;
and accordingly at the beginning of the poem he says that he fears
'the love of wealth and an overweening mind', evidently meaning that
it was through these that the quarrel arose. 
Part 6
As soon as he was at the head of affairs, Solon liberated the people
once and for all, by prohibiting all loans on the security of the
debtor's person: and in addition he made laws by which he cancelled
all debts, public and private. This measure is commonly called the
Seisachtheia [= removal of burdens], since thereby the people had
their loads removed from them. In connexion with it some persons try
to traduce the character of Solon. It so happened that, when he was
about to enact the Seisachtheia, he communicated his intention to
some members of the upper class, whereupon, as the partisans of the
popular party say, his friends stole a march on him; while those who
wish to attack his character maintain that he too had a share in the
fraud himself. For these persons borrowed money and bought up a large
amount of land, and so when, a short time afterwards, all debts were
cancelled, they became wealthy; and this, they say, was the origin
of the families which were afterwards looked on as having been wealthy
from primeval times. However, the story of the popular party is by
far the most probable. A man who was so moderate and public-spirited
in all his other actions, that when it was within his power to put
his fellow-citizens beneath his feet and establish himself as tyrant,
he preferred instead to incur the hostility of both parties by placing
his honour and the general welfare above his personal aggrandisement,
is not likely to have consented to defile his hands by such a petty
and palpable fraud. That he had this absolute power is, in the first
place, indicated by the desperate condition the country; moreover,
he mentions it himself repeatedly in his poems, and it is universally
admitted. We are therefore bound to consider this accusation to be
Part 7
Next Solon drew up a constitution and enacted new laws; and the ordinances
of Draco ceased to be used, with the exception of those relating to
murder. The laws were inscribed on the wooden stands, and set up in
the King's Porch, and all swore to obey them; and the nine Archons
made oath upon the stone, declaring that they would dedicate a golden
statue if they should transgress any of them. This is the origin of
the oath to that effect which they take to the present day. Solon
ratified his laws for a hundred years; and the following was the fashion
in which he organized the constitution. He divided the population
according to property into four classes, just as it had been divided
before, namely, Pentacosiomedimni, Knights, Zeugitae, and Thetes.
The various magistracies, namely, the nine Archons, the Treasurers,
the Commissioners for Public Contracts (Poletae), the Eleven, and
Clerks (Colacretae), he assigned to the Pentacosiomedimni, the Knights,
and the Zeugitae, giving offices to each class in proportion to the
value of their rateable property. To who ranked among the Thetes he
gave nothing but a place in the Assembly and in the juries. A man
had to rank as a Pentacosiomedimnus if he made, from his own land,
five hundred measures, whether liquid or solid. Those ranked as Knights
who made three hundred measures, or, as some say, those who were able
to maintain a horse. In support of the latter definition they adduce
the name of the class, which may be supposed to be derived from this
fact, and also some votive offerings of early times; for in the Acropolis
there is a votive offering, a statue of Diphilus, bearing this inscription:
The son of Diphilus, Athenion hight, 
Raised from the Thetes and become a knight, 
Did to the gods this sculptured charger bring, 
For his promotion a thank-offering. And a horse stands in evidence
beside the man, implying that this was what was meant by belonging
to the rank of Knight. At the same time it seems reasonable to suppose
that this class, like the Pentacosiomedimni, was defined by the possession
of an income of a certain number of measures. Those ranked as Zeugitae
who made two hundred measures, liquid or solid; and the rest ranked
as Thetes, and were not eligible for any office. Hence it is that
even at the present day, when a candidate for any office is asked
to what class he belongs, no one would think of saying that he belonged
to the Thetes. 
Part 8
The elections to the various offices Solon enacted should be by lot,
out of candidates selected by each of the tribes. Each tribe selected
ten candidates for the nine archonships, and among these the lot was
cast. Hence it is still the custom for each tribe to choose ten candidates
by lot, and then the lot is again cast among these. A proof that Solon
regulated the elections to office according to the property classes
may be found in the law still in force with regard to the Treasurers,
which enacts that they shall be chosen from the Pentacosiomedimni.
Such was Solon's legislation with respect to the nine Archons; whereas
in early times the Council of Areopagus summoned suitable persons
according to its own judgement and appointed them for the year to
the several offices. There were four tribes, as before, and four tribe-kings.
Each tribe was divided into three Trittyes [=Thirds], with twelve
Naucraries in each; and the Naucraries had officers of their own,
called Naucrari, whose duty it was to superintend the current receipts
and expenditure. Hence, among the laws of Solon now obsolete, it is
repeatedly written that the Naucrari are to receive and to spend out
of the Naucraric fund. Solon also appointed a Council of four hundred,
a hundred from each tribe; but he assigned to the Council of the Areopagus
the duty of superintending the laws, acting as before as the guardian
of the constitution in general. It kept watch over the affairs of
the state in most of the more important matters, and corrected offenders,
with full powers to inflict either fines or personal punishment. The
money received in fines it brought up into the Acropolis, without
assigning the reason for the mulct. It also tried those who conspired
for the overthrow of the state, Solon having enacted a process of
impeachment to deal with such offenders. Further, since he saw the
state often engaged in internal disputes, while many of the citizens
from sheer indifference accepted whatever might turn up, he made a
law with express reference to such persons, enacting that any one
who, in a time civil factions, did not take up arms with either party,
should lose his rights as a citizen and cease to have any part in
the state. 
Part 9
Such, then, was his legislation concerning the magistracies. There
are three points in the constitution of Solon which appear to be its
most democratic features: first and most important, the prohibition
of loans on the security of the debtor's person; secondly, the right
of every person who so willed to claim redress on behalf of any one
to whom wrong was being done; thirdly, the institution of the appeal
to the jurycourts; and it is to this last, they say, that the masses
have owed their strength most of all, since, when the democracy is
master of the voting-power, it is master of the constitution. Moreover,
since the laws were not drawn up in simple and explicit terms (but
like the one concerning inheritances and wards of state), disputes
inevitably occurred, and the courts had to decide in every matter,
whether public or private. Some persons in fact believe that Solon
deliberately made the laws indefinite, in order that the final decision
might be in the hands of the people. This, however, is not probable,
and the reason no doubt was that it is impossible to attain ideal
perfection when framing a law in general terms; for we must judge
of his intentions, not from the actual results in the present day,
but from the general tenor of the rest of his legislation.
Part 10
These seem to be the democratic features of his laws; but in addition,
before the period of his legislation, he carried through his abolition
of debts, and after it his increase in the standards of weights and
measures, and of the currency. During his administration the measures
were made larger than those of Pheidon, and the mina, which previously
had a standard of seventy drachmas, was raised to the full hundred.
The standard coin in earlier times was the two-drachma piece. He also
made weights corresponding with the coinage, sixty-three minas going
to the talent; and the odd three minas were distributed among the
staters and the other values. 
Part 11
When he had completed his organization of the constitution in the
manner that has been described, he found himself beset by people coming
to him and harassing him concerning his laws, criticizing here and
questioning there, till, as he wished neither to alter what he had
decided on nor yet to be an object of ill will to every one by remaining
in Athens, he set off on a journey to Egypt, with the combined objects
of trade and travel, giving out that he should not return for ten
years. He considered that there was no call for him to expound the
laws personally, but that every one should obey them just as they
were written. Moreover, his position at this time was unpleasant.
Many members of the upper class had been estranged from him on account
of his abolition of debts, and both parties were alienated through
their disappointment at the condition of things which he had created.
The mass of the people had expected him to make a complete redistribution
of all property, and the upper class hoped he would restore everything
to its former position, or, at any rate, make but a small change.
Solon, however, had resisted both classes. He might have made himself
a despot by attaching himself to whichever party he chose, but he
preferred, though at the cost of incurring the enmity of both, to
be the saviour of his country and the ideal lawgiver. 
Part 12
The truth of this view of Solon's policy is established alike by common
consent, and by the mention he has himself made of the matter in his
poems. Thus: 
I gave to the mass of the people such rank as befitted their need,
I took not away their honour, and I granted naught to their greed;
While those who were rich in power, who in wealth were glorious and
I bethought me that naught should befall them unworthy their
splendour and state; 
So I stood with my shield outstretched, and both were sale in its
And I would not that either should triumph, when the triumph was
not with right. 
Again he declares how the mass of the people ought to be treated:
But thus will the people best the voice of their leaders obey, When
neither too slack is the rein, nor violence holdeth the sway; For
indulgence breedeth a child, the presumption that spurns control,
When riches too great are poured upon men of unbalanced soul.
And again elsewhere he speaks about the persons who wished to redistribute
the land: So they came in search of plunder, and their cravings knew
no hound, Every one among them deeming endless wealth would here be
found. And that I with glozing smoothness hid a cruel mind within.
Fondly then and vainly dreamt they; now they raise an angry din, And
they glare askance in anger, and the light within their eyes Burns
with hostile flames upon me. Yet therein no justice lies. All I promised,
fully wrought I with the gods at hand to cheer, Naught beyond in folly
ventured. Never to my soul was dear With a tyrant's force to govern,
nor to see the good and base Side by side in equal portion share the
rich home of our race. 
Once more he speaks of the abolition of debts and of those who before
were in servitude, but were released owing to the Seisachtheia:
Of all the aims for which I summoned forth 
The people, was there one I compassed not? 
Thou, when slow time brings justice in its train, 
O mighty mother of the Olympian gods, 
Dark Earth, thou best canst witness, from whose breast 
I swept the pillars broadcast planted there, 
And made thee free, who hadst been slave of yore. 
And many a man whom fraud or law had sold 
For from his god-built land, an outcast slave, 
I brought again to Athens; yea, and some, 
Exiles from home through debt's oppressive load, 
Speaking no more the dear Athenian tongue, 
But wandering far and wide, I brought again; 
And those that here in vilest slavery 
Crouched 'neath a master's frown, I set them free. 
Thus might and right were yoked in harmony, 
Since by the force of law I won my ends 
And kept my promise. Equal laws I gave 
To evil and to good, with even hand 
Drawing straight justice for the lot of each. 
But had another held the goad as 
One in whose heart was guile and greediness, 
He had not kept the people back from strife. 
For had I granted, now what pleased the one, 
Then what their foes devised in counterpoise, 
Of many a man this state had been bereft. 
Therefore I showed my might on every side, 
Turning at bay like wolf among the hounds. 
And again he reviles both parties for their grumblings in the times
that followed: 
Nay, if one must lay blame where blame is due, 
Wer't not for me, the people ne'er had set 
Their eyes upon these blessings e'en in dreams:- 
While greater men, the men of wealthier life, 
Should praise me and should court me as their friend. For had any
other man, he says, received this exalted post, 
He had not kept the people hack, nor ceased 
Til he had robbed the richness of the milk. 
But I stood forth a landmark in the midst, 
And barred the foes from battle. 
Part 13
Such then, were Solon's reasons for his departure from the country.
After his retirement the city was still torn by divisions. For four
years, indeed, they lived in peace; but in the fifth year after Solon's
government they were unable to elect an Archon on account of their
dissensions, and again four years later they elected no Archon for
the same reason. Subsequently, after a similar period had elapsed,
Damasias was elected Archon; and he governed for two years and two
months, until he was forcibly expelled from his office. After this,
it was agreed, as a compromise, to elect ten Archons, five from the
Eupatridae, three from the Agroeci, and two from the Demiurgi, and
they ruled for the year following Damasias. It is clear from this
that the Archon was at the time the magistrate who possessed the greatest
power, since it is always in connexion with this office that conflicts
are seen to arise. But altogether they were in a continual state of
internal disorder. Some found the cause and justification of their
discontent in the abolition of debts, because thereby they had been
reduced to poverty; others were dissatisfied with the political constitution,
because it had undergone a revolutionary change; while with others
the motive was found in personal rivalries among themselves. The parties
at this time were three in number. First there was the party of the
Shore, led by Megacles the son of Alcmeon, which was considered to
aim at a moderate form of government; then there were the men of the
Plain, who desired an oligarchy and were led by Lycurgus; and thirdly
there were the men of the Highlands, at the head of whom was Pisistratus,
who was looked on as an extreme democrat. This latter party was reinforced
by those who had been deprived of the debts due to them, from motives
of poverty, and by those who were not of pure descent, from motives
of personal apprehension. A proof of this is seen in the fact that
after the tyranny was overthrown a revision was made of the citizen-roll,
on the ground that many persons were partaking in the franchise without
having a right to it. The names given to the respective parties were
derived from the districts in which they held their lands.
Part 14
Pisistratus had the reputation of being an extreme democrat, and he
also had distinguished himself greatly in the war with Megara. Taking
advantage of this, he wounded himself, and by representing that his
injuries had been inflicted on him by his political rivals, he persuaded
the people, through a motion proposed by Aristion, to grant him a
bodyguard. After he had got these 'club-bearers', as they were called,
he made an attack with them on the people and seized the Acropolis.
This happened in the archonship of Comeas, thirty-one years after
the legislation of Solon. It is related that, when Pisistratus asked
for his bodyguard, Solon opposed the request, and declared that in
so doing he proved himself wiser than half the people and braver than
the rest,-wiser than those who did not see that Pisistratus designed
to make himself tyrant, and braver than those who saw it and kept
silence. But when all his words availed nothing he carried forth his
armour and set it up in front of his house, saying that he had helped
his country so far as lay in his power (he was already a very old
man), and that he called on all others to do the same. Solon's exhortations,
however, proved fruitless, and Pisistratus assumed the sovereignty.
His administration was more like a constitutional government than
the rule of a tyrant; but before his power was firmly established,
the adherents of Megacles and Lycurgus made a coalition and drove
him out. This took place in the archonship of Hegesias, five years
after the first establishment of his rule. Eleven years later Megacles,
being in difficulties in a party struggle, again opened-negotiations
with Pisistratus, proposing that the latter should marry his daughter;
and on these terms he brought him back to Athens, by a very primitive
and simple-minded device. He first spread abroad a rumour that Athena
was bringing back Pisistratus, and then, having found a woman of great
stature and beauty, named Phye (according to Herodotus, of the deme
of Paeania, but as others say a Thracian flower-seller of the deme
of Collytus), he dressed her in a garb resembling that of the goddess
and brought her into the city with Pisistratus. The latter drove in
on a chariot with the woman beside him, and the inhabitants of the
city, struck with awe, received him with adoration. 
Part 15
In this manner did his first return take place. He did not, however,
hold his power long, for about six years after his return he was again
expelled. He refused to treat the daughter of Megacles as his wife,
and being afraid, in consequence, of a combination of the two opposing
parties, he retired from the country. First he led a colony to a place
called Rhaicelus, in the region of the Thermaic gulf; and thence he
passed to the country in the neighbourhood of Mt. Pangaeus. Here he
acquired wealth and hired mercenaries; and not till ten years had
elapsed did he return to Eretria and make an attempt to recover the
government by force. In this he had the assistance of many allies,
notably the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naxos, and also the Knights who
held the supreme power in the constitution of Eretria. After his victory
in the battle at Pallene he captured Athens, and when he had disarmed
the people he at last had his tyranny securely established, and was
able to take Naxos and set up Lygdamis as ruler there. He effected
the disarmament of the people in the following manner. He ordered
a parade in full armour in the Theseum, and began to make a speech
to the people. He spoke for a short time, until the people called
out that they could not hear him, whereupon he bade them come up to
the entrance of the Acropolis, in order that his voice might be better
heard. Then, while he continued to speak to them at great length,
men whom he had appointed for the purpose collected the arms and locked
them up in the chambers of the Theseum hard by, and came and made
a signal to him that it was done. Pisistratus accordingly, when he
had finished the rest of what he had to say, told the people also
what had happened to their arms; adding that they were not to be surprised
or alarmed, but go home and attend to their private affairs, while
he would himself for the future manage all the business of the state.
Part 16
Such was the origin and such the vicissitudes of the tyranny of Pisistratus.
His administration was temperate, as has been said before, and more
like constitutional government than a tyranny. Not only was he in
every respect humane and mild and ready to forgive those who offended,
but, in addition, he advanced money to the poorer people to help them
in their labours, so that they might make their living by agriculture.
In this he had two objects, first that they might not spend their
time in the city but might be scattered over all the face of the country,
and secondly that, being moderately well off and occupied with their
own business, they might have neither the wish nor the time to attend
to public affairs. At the same time his revenues were increased by
the thorough cultivation of the country, since he imposed a tax of
one tenth on all the produce. For the same reasons he instituted the
local justices,' and often made expeditions in person into the country
to inspect it and to settle disputes between individuals, that they
might not come into the city and neglect their farms. It was in one
of these progresses that, as the story goes, Pisistratus had his adventure
with the man of Hymettus, who was cultivating the spot afterwards
known as 'Tax-free Farm'. He saw a man digging and working at a very
stony piece of ground, and being surprised he sent his attendant to
ask what he got out of this plot of land. 'Aches and pains', said
the man; 'and that's what Pisistratus ought to have his tenth of'.
The man spoke without knowing who his questioner was; but Pisistratus
was so leased with his frank speech and his industry that he granted
him exemption from all taxes. And so in matters in general he burdened
the people as little as possible with his government, but always cultivated
peace and kept them in all quietness. Hence the tyranny of Pisistratus
was often spoken of proverbially as 'the age of gold'; for when his
sons succeeded him the government became much harsher. But most important
of all in this respect was his popular and kindly disposition. In
all things he was accustomed to observe the laws, without giving himself
any exceptional privileges. Once he was summoned on a charge of homicide
before the Areopagus, and he appeared in person to make his defence;
but the prosecutor was afraid to present himself and abandoned the
case. For these reasons he held power long, and whenever he was expelled
he regained his position easily. The majority alike of the upper class
and of the people were in his favour; the former he won by his social
intercourse with them, the latter by the assistance which he gave
to their private purses, and his nature fitted him to win the hearts
of both. Moreover, the laws in reference to tyrants at that time in
force at Athens were very mild, especially the one which applies more
particularly to the establishment of a tyranny. The law ran as follows:
'These are the ancestral statutes of the Athenians; if any persons
shall make an attempt to establish a tyranny, or if any person shall
join in setting up a tyranny, he shall lose his civic rights, both
himself and his whole house.' 
Part 17
Thus did Pisistratus grow old in the possession of power, and he died
a natural death in the archonship of Philoneos, three and thirty years
from the time at which he first established himself as tyrant, during
nineteen of which he was in possession of power; the rest he spent
in exile. It is evident from this that the story is mere gossip which
states that Pisistratus was the youthful favourite of Solon and commanded
in the war against Megara for the recovery of Salamis. It will not
harmonize with their respective ages, as any one may see who will
reckon up the years of the life of each of them, and the dates at
which they died. After the death of Pisistratus his sons took up the
government, and conducted it on the same system. He had two sons by
his first and legitimate wife, Hippias and Hipparchus, and two by
his Argive consort, Iophon and Hegesistratus, who was surnamed Thessalus.
For Pisistratus took a wife from Argos, Timonassa, the daughter of
a man of Argos, named Gorgilus; she had previously been the wife of
Archinus of Ambracia, one of the descendants of Cypselus. This was
the origin of his friendship with the Argives, on account of which
a thousand of them were brought over by Hegesistratus and fought on
his side in the battle at Pallene. Some authorities say that this
marriage took place after his first expulsion from Athens, others
while he was in possession of the government. 
Part 18
Hippias and Hipparchus assumed the control of affairs on grounds alike
of standing and of age; but Hippias, as being also naturally of a
statesmanlike and shrewd disposition, was really the head of the government.
Hipparchus was youthful in disposition, amorous, and fond of literature
(it was he who invited to Athens Anacreon, Simonides, and the other
poets), while Thessalus was much junior in age, and was violent and
headstrong in his behaviour. It was from his character that all the
evils arose which befell the house. He became enamoured of Harmodius,
and, since he failed to win his affection, he lost all restraint upon
his passion, and in addition to other exhibitions of rage he finally
prevented the sister of Harmodius from taking the part of a basket-bearer
in the Panathenaic procession, alleging as his reason that Harmodius
was a person of loose life. Thereupon, in a frenzy of wrath, Harmodius
and Aristogeiton did their celebrated deed, in conjunction with a
number of confederates. But while they were lying in wait for Hippias
in the Acropolis at the time of the Panathenaea (Hippias, at this
moment, was awaiting the arrival of the procession, while Hipparchus
was organizing its dispatch) they saw one of the persons privy to
the plot talking familiarly with him. Thinking that he was betraying
them, and desiring to do something before they were arrested, they
rushed down and made their attempt without waiting for the rest of
their confederates. They succeeded in killing Hipparchus near the
Leocoreum while he was engaged in arranging the procession, but ruined
the design as a whole; of the two leaders, Harmodius was killed on
the spot by the guards, while Aristogeiton was arrested, and perished
later after suffering long tortures. While under the torture he accused
many persons who belonged by birth to the most distinguished families
and were also personal friends of the tyrants. At first the government
could find no clue to the conspiracy; for the current story, that
Hippias made all who were taking part in the procession leave their
arms, and then detected those who were carrying secret daggers, cannot
be true, since at that time they did not bear arms in the processions,
this being a custom instituted at a later period by the democracy.
According to the story of the popular party, Aristogeiton accused
the friends of the tyrants with the deliberate intention that the
latter might commit an impious act, and at the same time weaken themselves,
by putting to death innocent men who were their own friends; others
say that he told no falsehood, but was betraying the actual accomplices.
At last, when for all his efforts he could not obtain release by death,
he promised to give further information against a number of other
persons; and, having induced Hippias to give him his hand to confirm
his word, as soon as he had hold of it he reviled him for giving his
hand to the murderer of his brother, till Hippias, in a frenzy of
rage, lost control of himself and snatched out his dagger and dispatched
Part 19
After this event the tyranny became much harsher. In consequence of
his vengeance for his brother, and of the execution and banishment
of a large number of persons, Hippias became a distrusted and an embittered
man. About three years after the death of Hipparchus, finding his
position in the city insecure, he set about fortifying Munichia, with
the intention of establishing himself there. While he was still engaged
on this work, however, he was expelled by Cleomenes, king of Lacedaemon,
in consequence of the Spartans being continually incited by oracles
to overthrow the tyranny. These oracles were obtained in the following
way. The Athenian exiles, headed by the Alcmeonidae, could not by
their own power effect their return, but failed continually in their
attempts. Among their other failures, they fortified a post in Attica,
Lipsydrium, above Mt. Parnes, and were there joined by some partisans
from the city; but they were besieged by the tyrants and reduced to
surrender. After this disaster the following became a popular drinking
Ah! Lipsydrium, faithless friend! 
Lo, what heroes to death didst send, 
Nobly born and great in deed! 
Well did they prove themselves at need 
Of noble sires a noble seed. 
Having failed, then, in very other method, they took the contract
for rebuilding the temple at Delphi, thereby obtaining ample funds,
which they employed to secure the help of the Lacedaemonians. All
this time the Pythia kept continually enjoining on the Lacedaemonians
who came to consult the oracle, that they must free Athens; till finally
she succeeded in impelling the Spartans to that step, although the
house of Pisistratus was connected with them by ties of hospitality.
The resolution of the Lacedaemonians was, however, at least equally
due to the friendship which had been formed between the house of Pisistratus
and Argos. Accordingly they first sent Anchimolus by sea at the head
of an army; but he was defeated and killed, through the arrival of
Cineas of Thessaly to support the sons of Pisistratus with a force
of a thousand horsemen. Then, being roused to anger by this disaster,
they sent their king, Cleomenes, by land at the head of a larger force;
and he, after defeating the Thessalian cavalry when they attempted
to intercept his march into Attica, shut up Hippias within what was
known as the Pelargic wall and blockaded him there with the assistance
of the Athenians. While he was sitting down before the place, it so
happened that the sons of the Pisistratidae were captured in an attempt
to slip out; upon which the tyrants capitulated on condition of the
safety of their children, and surrendered the Acropolis to the Athenians,
five days being first allowed them to remove their effects. This took
place in the archonship of Harpactides, after they had held the tyranny
for about seventeen years since their father's death, or in all, including
the period of their father's rule, for nine-and-forty years.
Part 20
After the overthrow of the tyranny, the rival leaders in the state
were Isagoras son of Tisander, a partisan of the tyrants, and Cleisthenes,
who belonged to the family of the Alcmeonidae. Cleisthenes, being
beaten in the political clubs, called in the people by giving the
franchise to the masses. Thereupon Isagoras, finding himself left
inferior in power, invited Cleomenes, who was united to him by ties
of hospitality, to return to Athens, and persuaded him to 'drive out
the pollution', a plea derived from the fact that the Alcmeonidae
were suppposed to be under the curse of pollution. On this Cleisthenes
retired from the country, and Cleomenes, entering Attica with a small
force, expelled, as polluted, seven hundred Athenian families. Having
effected this, he next attempted to dissolve the Council, and to set
up Isagoras and three hundred of his partisans as the supreme power
in the state. The Council, however, resisted, the populace flocked
together, and Cleomenes and Isagoras, with their adherents, took refuge
in the Acropolis. Here the people sat down and besieged them for two
days; and on the third they agreed to let Cleomenes and all his followers
de art, while they summoned Cleisthenes and the other exiles back
to Athens. When the people had thus obtained the command of affairs,
Cleisthenes was their chief and popular leader. And this was natural;
for the Alcmeonidae were perhaps the chief cause of the expulsion
of the tyrants, and for the greater part of their rule were at perpetual
war with them. But even earlier than the attempts of the Alcmeonidae,
one Cedon made an attack on the tyrants; when there came another popular
drinking song, addressed to him: 
Pour a health yet again, boy, to Cedon; forget not this duty to do,
If a health is an honour befitting the name of a good man and true.
Part 21
The people, therefore, had good reason to place confidence in Cleisthenes.
Accordingly, now that he was the popular leader, three years after
the expulsion of the tyrants, in the archonship of Isagoras, his first
step was to distribute the whole population into ten tribes in place
of the existing four, with the object of intermixing the members of
the different tribes, and so securing that more persons might have
a share in the franchise. From this arose the saying 'Do not look
at the tribes', addressed to those who wished to scrutinize the lists
of the old families. Next he made the Council to consist of five hundred
members instead of four hundred, each tribe now contributing fifty,
whereas formerly each had sent a hundred. The reason why he did not
organize the people into twelve tribes was that he might not have
to use the existing division into trittyes; for the four tribes had
twelve trittyes, so that he would not have achieved his object of
redistributing the population in fresh combinations. Further, he divided
the country into thirty groups of demes, ten from the districts about
the city, ten from the coast, and ten from the interior. These he
called trittyes; and he assigned three of them by lot to each tribe,
in such a way that each should have one portion in each of these three
localities. All who lived in any given deme he declared fellow-demesmen,
to the end that the new citizens might not be exposed by the habitual
use of family names, but that men might be officially described by
the names of their demes; and accordingly it is by the names of their
demes that the Athenians speak of one another. He also instituted
Demarchs, who had the same duties as the previously existing Naucrari,-the
demes being made to take the place of the naucraries. He gave names
to the demes, some from the localities to which they belonged, some
from the persons who founded them, since some of the areas no longer
corresponded to localities possessing names. On the other hand he
allowed every one to retain his family and clan and religious rites
according to ancestral custom. The names given to the tribes were
the ten which the Pythia appointed out of the hundred selected national
Part 22
By these reforms the constitution became much more democratic than
that of Solon. The laws of Solon had been obliterated by disuse during
the period of the tyranny, while Cleisthenes substituted new ones
with the object of securing the goodwill of the masses. Among these
was the law concerning ostracism. Four year after the establishment
of this system, in the archonship of Hermocreon, they first imposed
upon the Council of Five Hundred the oath which they take to the present
day. Next they began to elect the generals by tribes, one from each
tribe, while the Polemarch was the commander of the whole army. Then,
eleven years later, in the archonship of Phaenippus they won the battle
of Marathon; and two years after this victory, when the people had
now gained self-confidence, they for the first time made use of the
law of ostracism. This had originally been passed as a precaution
against men in high office, because Pisistratus took advantage of
his position as a popular leader and general to make himself tyrant;
and the first person ostracized was one of his relatives, Hipparchus
son of Charmus, of the deme of Collytus, the very person on whose
account especially Cleisthenes had enacted the law, as he wished to
get rid of him. Hitherto, however, he had escaped; for the Athenians,
with the usual leniency of the democracy, allowed all the partisans
of the tyrants, who had not joined in their evil deeds in the time
of the troubles to remain in the city; and the chief and leader of
these was Hipparchus. Then in the very next year, in the archonship
of Telesinus, they for the first time since the tyranny elected, tribe
by tribe, the nine Archons by lot out of the five hundred candidates
selected by the demes, all the earlier ones having been elected by
vote; and in the same year Megacles son of Hippocrates, of the deme
of Alopece, was ostracized. Thus for three years they continued to
ostracize the friends of the tyrants, on whose account the law had
been passed; but in the following year they began to remove others
as well, including any one who seemed to be more powerful than was
expedient. The first person unconnected with the tyrants who was ostracized
was Xanthippus son of Ariphron. Two years later, in the archonship
of Nicodemus, the mines of Maroneia were discovered, and the state
made a profit of a hundred talents from the working of them. Some
persons advised the people to make a distribution of the money among
themselves, but this was prevented by Themistocles. He refused to
say on what he proposed to spend the money, but he bade them lend
it to the hundred richest men in Athens, one talent to each, and then,
if the manner in which it was employed pleased the people, the expenditure
should be charged to the state, but otherwise the state should receive
the sum back from those to whom it was lent. On these terms he received
the money and with it he had a hundred triremes built, each of the
hundred individuals building one; and it was with these ships that
they fought the battle of Salamis against the barbarians. About this
time Aristides the son of Lysimachus was ostracized. Three years later,
however, in the archonship of Hypsichides, all the ostracized persons
were recalled, on account of the advance of the army of Xerxes; and
it was laid down for the future that persons under sentence of ostracism
must live between Geraestus and Scyllaeum, on pain of losing their
civic rights irrevocably. 
Part 23 
So far, then, had the city progressed by this time, growing gradually
with the growth of the democracy; but after the Persian wars the Council
of Areopagus once more developed strength and assumed the control
of the state. It did not acquire this supremacy by virtue of any formal
decree, but because it had been the cause of the battle of Salamis
being fought. When the generals were utterly at a loss how to meet
the crisis and made proclamation that every one should see to his
own safety, the Areopagus provided a donation of money, distributing
eight drachmas to each member of the ships' crews, and so prevailed
on them to go on board. On these grounds people bowed to its prestige;
and during this period Athens was well administered. At this time
they devoted themselves to the prosecution of the war and were in
high repute among the Greeks, so that the command by sea was conferred
upon them, in spite of the opposition of the Lacedaemonians. The leaders
of the people during this period were Aristides, of Lysimachus, and
Themistocles, son of Lysimachus, and Themistocles, son of Neocles,
of whom the latter appeared to devote himself to the conduct of war,
while the former had the reputation of being a clever statesman and
the most upright man of his time. Accordingly the one was usually
employed as general, the other as political adviser. The rebuilding
of the fortifications they conducted in combination, although they
were political opponents; but it was Aristides who, seizing the opportunity
afforded by the discredit brought upon the Lacedaemonians by Pausanias,
guided the public policy in the matter of the defection of the Ionian
states from the alliance with Sparta. It follows that it was he who
made the first assessment of tribute from the various allied states,
two years after the battle of Salamis, in the archonship of Timosthenes;
and it was he who took the oath of offensive and defensive alliance
with the Ionians, on which occasion they cast the masses of iron into
the sea. 
Part 24
After this, seeing the state growing in confidence and much wealth
accumulated, he advised the people to lay hold of the leadership of
the league, and to quit the country districts and settle in the city.
He pointed out to them that all would be able to gain a living there,
some by service in the army, others in the garrisons, others by taking
a part in public affairs; and in this way they would secure the leadership.
This advice was taken; and when the people had assumed the supreme
control they proceeded to treat their allies in a more imperious fashion,
with the exception of the Chians, Lesbians, and Samians. These they
maintained to protect their empire, leaving their constitutions untouched,
and allowing them to retain whatever dominion they then possessed.
They also secured an ample maintenance for the mass of the population
in the way which Aristides had pointed out to them. Out of the proceeds
of the tributes and the taxes and the contributions of the allies
more than twenty thousand persons were maintained. There were 6,000
jurymen, 1,600 bowmen, 1,200 Knights, 500 members of the Council,
500 guards of the dockyards, besides fifty guards in the Acropolis.
There were some 700 magistrates at home, and some 700 abroad. Further,
when they subsequently went to war, there were in addition 2,500 heavy-armed
troops, twenty guard-ships, and other ships which collected the tributes,
with crews amounting to 2,000 men, selected by lot; and besides these
there were the persons maintained at the Prytaneum, and orphans, and
gaolers, since all these were supported by the state. 
Part 25
Such was the way in which the people earned their livelihood. The
supremacy of the Areopagus lasted for about seventeen years after
the Persian wars, although gradually declining. But as the strength
of the masses increased, Ephialtes, son of Sophonides, a man with
a reputation for incorruptibility and public virtue, who had become
the leader of the people, made an attack upon that Council. First
of all he ruined many of its members by bringing actions against them
with reference to their administration. Then, in the archonship of
Conon, he stripped the Council of all the acquired prerogatives from
which it derived its guardianship of the constitution, and assigned
some of them to the Council of Five Hundred, and others to the Assembly
and the law-courts. In this revolution he was assisted by Themistocles,
who was himself a member of the Areopagus, but was expecting to be
tried before it on a charge of treasonable dealings with Persia. This
made him anxious that it should be overthrown, and accordingly he
warned Ephialtes that the Council intended to arrest him, while at
the same time he informed the Areopagites that he would reveal to
them certain persons who were conspiring to subvert the constitution.
He then conducted the representatives delegated by the Council to
the residence of Ephialtes, promising to show them the conspirators
who assembled there, and proceeded to converse with them in an earnest
manner. Ephialtes, seeing this, was seized with alarm and took refuge
in suppliant guise at the altar. Every one was astounded at the occurrence,
and presently, when the Council of Five Hundred met, Ephialtes and
Themistocles together proceeded to denounce the Areopagus to them.
This they repeated in similar fashion in the Assembly, until they
succeeded in depriving it of its power. Not long afterwards, however,
Ephialtes was assassinated by Aristodicus of Tanagra. In this way
was the Council of Areopagus deprived of its guardianship of the state.
Part 26
After this revolution the administration of the state became more
and more lax, in consequence of the eager rivalry of candidates for
popular favour. During this period the moderate party, as it happened,
had no real chief, their leader being Cimon son of Miltiades, who
was a comparatively young man, and had been late in entering public
life; and at the same time the general populace suffered great losses
by war. The soldiers for active service were selected at that time
from the roll of citizens, and as the generals were men of no military
experience, who owed their position solely to their family standing,
it continually happened that some two or three thousand of the troops
perished on an expedition; and in this way the best men alike of the
lower and the upper classes were exhausted. Consequently in most matters
of administration less heed was paid to the laws than had formerly
been the case. No alteration, however, was made in the method of election
of the nine Archons, except that five years after the death of Ephialtes
it was decided that the candidates to be submitted to the lot for
that office might be selected from the Zeugitae as well as from the
higher classes. The first Archon from that class was Mnesitheides.
Up to this time all the Archons had been taken from the Pentacosiomedimni
and Knights, while the Zeugitae were confined to the ordinary magistracies,
save where an evasion of the law was overlooked. Four years later,
in the archonship of Lysicrates, thirty 'local justices', as they
as they were called, were re-established; and two years afterwards,
in the archonship of Antidotus, consequence of the great increase
in the number of citizens, it was resolved, on the motion of Pericles,
that no one should admitted to the franchise who was not of citizen
birth by both parents. 
Part 27
After this Pericles came forward as popular leader, having first distinguished
himself while still a young man by prosecuting Cimon on the audit
of his official accounts as general. Under his auspices the constitution
became still more democratic. He took away some of the privileges
of the Areopagus, and, above all, he turned the policy of the state
in the direction of sea power, which caused the masses to acquire
confidence in themselves and consequently to take the conduct of affairs
more and more into their own hands. Moreover, forty-eight years after
the battle of Salamis, in the archonship of Pythodorus, the Peloponnesian
war broke out, during which the populace was shut up in the city and
became accustomed to gain its livelihood by military service, and
so, partly voluntarily and partly involuntarily, determined to assume
the administration of the state itself. Pericles was also the first
to institute pay for service in the law-courts, as a bid for popular
favour to counterbalance the wealth of Cimon. The latter, having private
possessions on a regal scale, not only performed the regular public
services magnificently, but also maintained a large number of his
fellow-demesmen. Any member of the deme of Laciadae could go every
day to Cimon's house and there receive a reasonable provision; while
his estate was guarded by no fences, so that any one who liked might
help himself to the fruit from it. Pericles' private property was
quite unequal to this magnificence and accordingly he took the advice
of Damonides of Oia (who was commonly supposed to be the person who
prompted Pericles in most of his measures, and was therefore subsequently
ostracized), which was that, as he was beaten in the matter of private
possessions, he should make gifts to the people from their own property;
and accordingly he instituted pay for the members of the juries. Some
critics accuse him of thereby causing a deterioration in the character
of the juries, since it was always the common people who put themselves
forward for selection as jurors, rather than the men of better position.
Moreover, bribery came into existence after this, the first person
to introduce it being Anytus, after his command at Pylos. He was prosecuted
by certain individuals on account of his loss of Pylos, but escaped
by bribing the jury. 
Part 28
So long, however, as Pericles was leader of the people, things went
tolerably well with the state; but when he was dead there was a great
change for the worse. Then for the first time did the people choose
a leader who was of no reputation among men of good standing, whereas
up to this time such men had always been found as leaders of the democracy.
The first leader of the people, in the very beginning of things, was
Solon, and the second was Pisistratus, both of them men of birth and
position. After the overthrow of the tyrants there was Cleisthenes,
a member of the house of the Alcmeonidae; and he had no rival opposed
to him after the expulsion of the party of Isagoras. After this Xanthippus
was the leader of the people, and Miltiades of the upper class. Then
came Themistocles and Aristides, and after them Ephialtes as leader
of the people, and Cimon son of Miltiades of the wealthier class.
Pericles followed as leader of the people, and Thucydides, who was
connected by marriage with Cimon, of the opposition. After the death
of Pericles, Nicias, who subsequently fell in Sicily, appeared as
leader of the aristocracy, and Cleon son of Cleaenetus of the people.
The latter seems, more than any one else, to have been the cause of
the corruption of the democracy by his wild undertakings; and he was
the first to use unseemly shouting and coarse abuse on the Bema, and
to harangue the people with his cloak girt up short about him, whereas
all his predecessors had spoken decently and in order. These were
succeeded by Theramenes son of Hagnon as leader of the one party,
and the lyre-maker Cleophon of the people. It was Cleophon who first
granted the twoobol donation for the theatrical performances, and
for some time it continued to be given; but then Callicrates of Paeania
ousted him by promising to add a third obol to the sum. Both of these
persons were subsequently condemned to death; for the people, even
if they are deceived for a time, in the end generally come to detest
those who have beguiled them into any unworthy action. After Cleophon
the popular leadership was occupied successively by the men who chose
to talk the biggest and pander the most to the tastes of the majority,
with their eyes fixed only on the interests of the moment. The best
statesmen at Athens, after those of early times, seem to have been
Nicias, Thucydides, and Theramenes. As to Nicias and Thucydides, nearly
every one agrees that they were not merely men of birth and character,
but also statesmen, and that they ruled the state with paternal care.
On the merits of Theramenes opinion is divided, because it so happened
that in his time public affairs were in a very stormy state. But those
who give their opinion deliberately find him, not, as his critics
falsely assert, overthrowing every kind of constitution, but supporting
every kind so long as it did not transgress laws; thus showing that
he was able, as every good citizen should be, to live under any form
of constitution, while he refused to countenance illegality and was
its constant enemy. 
Part 29
So long as the fortune of the war continued even, the Athenians preserved
the democracy; but after the disaster in Sicily, when the Lacedaemonians
had gained the upper hand through their alliance with the king of
Persia, they were compelled to abolish the democracy and establish
in its place the constitution of the Four Hundred. The speech recommending
this course before the vote was made by Melobius, and the motion was
proposed by Pythodorus of Anaphlystus; but the real argument which
persuaded the majority was the belief that the king of Persia was
more likely to form an alliance with them if the constitution were
on an oligarchical basis. The motion of Pythodorus was to the following
effect. The popular Assembly was to elect twenty persons, over forty
years of age, who, in conjunction with the existing ten members of
the Committee of Public Safety, after taking an oath that they would
frame such measures as they thought best for the state, should then
prepare proposals for the public. safety. In addition, any other person
might make proposals, so that of all the schemes before them the people
might choose the best. Cleitophon concurred with the motion of Pythodorus,
but moved that the committee should also investigate the ancient laws
enacted by Cleisthenes when he created the democracy, in order that
they might have these too before them and so be in a position to decide
wisely; his suggestion being that the constitution of Cleisthenes
was not really democratic, but closely akin to that of Solon. When
the committee was elected, their first proposal was that the Prytanes
should be compelled to put to the vote any motion that was offered
on behalf of the public safety. Next they abolished all indictments
for illegal proposals, all impeachments and pubic prosecutions, in
order that every Athenian should be free to give his counsel on the
situation, if he chose; and they decreed that if any person imposed
a fine on any other for his acts in this respect, or prosecuted him
or summoned him before the courts, he should, on an information being
laid against him, be summarily arrested and brought before the generals,
who should deliver him to the Eleven to be put to death. After these
preliminary measures, they drew up the constitution in the following
manner. The revenues of the state were not to be spent on any purpose
except the war. All magistrates should serve without remuneration
for the period of the war, except the nine Archons and the Prytanes
for the time being, who should each receive three obols a day. The
whole of the rest of the administration was to be committed, for the
period of the war, to those Athenians who were most capable of serving
the state personally or pecuniarily, to the number of not less than
five thousand. This body was to have full powers, to the extent even
of making treaties with whomsoever they willed; and ten representatives,
over forty years of age, were to be elected from each tribe to draw
up the list of the Five Thousand, after taking an oath on a full and
perfect sacrifice. 
Part 30
These were the recommendations of the committee; and when they had
been ratified the Five Thousand elected from their own number a hundred
commissioners to draw up the constitution. They, on their appointment,
drew up and produced the following recommendations. There should be
a Council, holding office for a year, consisting of men over thirty
years of age, serving without pay. To this body should belong the
Generals, the nine Archons, the Amphictyonic Registrar (Hieromnemon),
the Taxiarchs, the Hipparchs, the Phylarch, the commanders of garrisons,
the Treasurers of Athena and the other gods, ten in number, the Hellenic
Treasurers (Hellenotamiae), the Treasurers of the other non-sacred
moneys, to the number of twenty, the ten Commissioners of Sacrifices
(Hieropoei), and the ten Superintendents of the mysteries. All these
were to be appointed by the Council from a larger number of selected
candidates, chosen from its members for the time being. The other
offices were all to be filled by lot, and not from the members of
the Council. The Hellenic Treasurers who actually administered the
funds should not sit with the Council. As regards the future, four
Councils were to be created, of men of the age already mentioned,
and one of these was to be chosen by lot to take office at once, while
the others were to receive it in turn, in the order decided by the
lot. For this purpose the hundred commissioners were to distribute
themselves and all the rest as equally as possible into four parts,
and cast lots for precedence, and the selected body should hold office
for a year. They were to administer that office as seemed to them
best, both with reference to the safe custody and due expenditure
of the finances, and generally with regard to all other matters to
the best of their ability. If they desired to take a larger number
of persons into counsel, each member might call in one assistant of
his own choice, subject to the same qualification of age. The Council
was to sit once every five days, unless there was any special need
for more frequent sittings. The casting of the lot for the Council
was to be held by the nine Archons; votes on divisions were to be
counted by five tellers chosen by lot from the members of the Council,
and of these one was to be selected by lot every day to act as president.
These five persons were to cast lots for precedence between the parties
wishing to appear before the Council, giving the first place to sacred
matters, the second to heralds, the third to embassies, and the fourth
to all other subjects; but matters concerning the war might be dealt
with, on the motion of the generals, whenever there was need, without
balloting. Any member of the Council who did not enter the Council-house
at the time named should be fined a drachma for each day, unless he
was away on leave of absence from the Council. 
Part 31
Such was the constitution which they drew up for the time to come,
but for the immediate present they devised the following scheme. There
should be a Council of Four Hundred, as in the ancient constitution,
forty from each tribe, chosen out of candidates of more than thirty
years of age, selected by the members of the tribes. This Council
should appoint the magistrates and draw up the form of oath which
they were to take; and in all that concerned the laws, in the examination
of official accounts, and in other matters generally, they might act
according to their discretion. They must, however, observe the laws
that might be enacted with reference to the constitution of the state,
and had no power to alter them nor to pass others. The generals should
be provisionally elected from the whole body of the Five Thousand,
but so soon as the Council came into existence it was to hold an examination
of military equipments, and thereon elect ten persons, together with
a secretary, and the persons thus elected should hold office during
the coming year with full powers, and should have the right, whenever
they desired it, of joining in the deliberations of the Council. The
Five thousand was also to elect a single Hipparch and ten Phylarchs;
but for the future the Council was to elect these officers according
to the regulations above laid down. No office, except those of member
of the Council and of general, might be held more than once, either
by the first occupants or by their successors. With reference to the
future distribution of the Four Hundred into the four successive sections,
the hundred commissioners must divide them whenever the time comes
for the citizens to join in the Council along with the rest.
Part 32
The hundred commissioners appointed by the Five Thousand drew up the
constitution as just stated; and after it had been ratified by the
people, under the presidency of Aristomachus, the existing Council,
that of the year of Callias, was dissolved before it had completed
its term of office. It was dissolved on the fourteenth day of the
month Thargelion, and the Four Hundred entered into office on the
twenty-first; whereas the regular Council, elected by lot, ought to
have entered into office on the fourteenth of Scirophorion. Thus was
the oligarchy established, in the archonship of Callias, just about
a hundred years after the expulsion of the tyrants. The chief promoters
of the revolution were Pisander, Antiphon, and Theramenes, all of
them men of good birth and with high reputations for ability and judgement.
When, however, this constitution had been established, the Five Thousand
were only nominally selected, and the Four Hundred, together with
the ten officers on whom full powers had been conferred, occupied
the Council-house and really administered the government. They began
by sending ambassadors to the Lacedaemonians proposing a cessation
of the war on the basis of the existing Position; but as the Lacedaemonians
refused to listen to them unless they would also abandon the command
of the sea, they broke off the negotiations. 
Part 33
For about four months the constitution of the Four Hundred lasted,
and Mnasilochus held office as Archon of their nomination for two
months of the year of Theopompus, who was Archon for the remaining
ten. On the loss of the naval battle of Eretria, however, and the
revolt of the whole of Euboea except Oreum, the indignation of the
people was greater than at any of the earlier disasters, since they
drew far more supplies at this time from Euboea than from Attica itself.
Accordingly they deposed the Four Hundred and committed the management
of affairs to the Five Thousand, consisting of persons Possessing
a military equipment. At the same time they voted that pay should
not be given for any public office. The persons chiefly responsible
for the revolution were Aristocrates and Theramenes, who disapproved
of the action of the Four Hundred in retaining the direction of affairs
entirely in their own hands, and referring nothing to the Five Thousand.
During this period the constitution of the state seems to have been
admirable, since it was a time of war and the franchise was in the
hands of those who possessed a military equipment. 
Part 34
The people, however, in a very short time deprived the Five Thousand
of their monopoly of the government. Then, six years after the overthrow
of the Four Hundred, in the archonship of Callias of Angele, battle
of Arginusae took place, of which the results were, first, that the
ten generals who had gained the victory were all condemned by a single
decision, owing to the people being led astray by persons who aroused
their indignation; though, as a matter of fact, some of the generals
had actually taken no part in the battle, and others were themselves
picked up by other vessels. Secondly, when the Lacedaemonians proposed
to evacuate Decelea and make peace on the basis of the existing position,
although some of the Athenians supported this proposal, the majority
refused to listen to them. In this they were led astray by Cleophon,
who appeared in the Assembly drunk and wearing his breastplate, and
prevented peace being made, declaring that he would never accept peace
unless the Lacedaemonians abandoned their claims on all the cities
allied with them. They mismanaged their opportunity then, and in a
very short time they learnt their mistake. The next year, in the archonship
of Alexias, they suffered the disaster of Aegospotami, the consequence
of which was that Lysander became master of the city, and set up the
Thirty as its governors. He did so in the following manner. One of
the terms of peace stipulated that the state should be governed according
to 'the ancient constitution'. Accordingly the popular party tried
to preserve the democracy, while that part of the upper class which
belonged to the political clubs, together with the exiles who had
returned since the peace, aimed at an oligarchy, and those who were
not members of any club, though in other respects they considered
themselves as good as any other citizens, were anxious to restore
the ancient constitution. The latter class included Archinus, Anytus,
Cleitophon, Phormisius, and many others, but their most prominent
leader was Theramenes. Lysander, however, threw his influence on the
side of the oligarchical party, and the popular Assembly was compelled
by sheer intimidation to pass a vote establishing the oligarchy. The
motion to this effect was proposed by Dracontides of Aphidna.
Part 35
In this way were the Thirty established in power, in the archonship
of Pythodorus. As soon, however, as they were masters of the city,
they ignored all the resolutions which had been passed relating to
the organization of the constitution, but after appointing a Council
of Five Hundred and the other magistrates out of a thousand selected
candidates, and associating with themselves ten Archons in Piraeus,
eleven superintendents of the prison, and three hundred 'lash-bearers'
as attendants, with the help of these they kept the city under their
own control. At first, indeed, they behaved with moderation towards
the citizens and pretended to administer the state according to the
ancient constitution. In pursuance of this policy they took down from
the hill of Areopagus the laws of Ephialtes and Archestratus relating
to the Areopagite Council; they also repealed such of the statutes
of Solon as were obscure, and abolished the supreme power of the law-courts.
In this they claimed to be restoring the constitution and freeing
it from obscurities; as, for instance, by making the testator free
once for all to leave his property as he pleased, and abolishing the
existing limitations in cases of insanity, old age, and undue female
influence, in order that no opening might be left for professional
accusers. In other matters also their conduct was similar. At first,
then, they acted on these lines, and they destroyed the professional
accusers and those mischievous and evil-minded persons who, to the
great detriment of the democracy, had attached themselves to it in
order to curry favour with it. With all of this the city was much
pleased, and thought that the Thirty were doing it with the best of
motives. But so soon as they had got a firmer hold on the city, they
spared no class of citizens, but put to death any persons who were
eminent for wealth or birth or character. Herein they aimed at removing
all whom they had reason to fear, while they also wished to lay hands
on their possessions; and in a short time they put to death not less
than fifteen hundred persons. 
Part 36
Theramenes, however, seeing the city thus falling into ruin, was displeased
with their proceedings, and counselled them to cease such unprincipled
conduct and let the better classes have a share in the government.
At first they resisted his advice, but when his proposals came to
be known abroad, and the masses began to associate themselves with
him, they were seized with alarm lest he should make himself the leader
of the people and destroy their despotic power. Accordingly they drew
up a list of three thousand citizens, to whom they announced that
they would give a share in the constitution. Theramenes, however,
criticized this scheme also, first on the ground that, while proposing
to give all respectable citizens a share in the constitution, they
were actually giving it only to three thousand persons, as though
all merit were confined within that number; and secondly because they
were doing two inconsistent things, since they made the government
rest on the basis of force, and yet made the governors inferior in
strength to the governed. However, they took no notice of his criticisms,
and for a long time put off the publication of the list of the Three
Thousand and kept to themselves the names of those who had been placed
upon it; and every time they did decide to publish it they proceeded
to strike out some of those who had been included in it, and insert
others who had been omitted. 
Part 37
Now when winter had set in, Thrasybulus and the exiles occupied Phyle,
and the force which the Thirty led out to attack them met with a reverse.
Thereupon the Thirty decided to disarm the bulk of the population
and to get rid of Theramenes; which they did in the following way.
They introduced two laws into the Council, which they commanded it
to pass; the first of them gave the Thirty absolute power to put to
death any citizen who was not included in the list of the Three Thousand,
while the second disqualified all persons from participation in the
franchise who should have assisted in the demolition of the fort of
Eetioneia, or have acted in any way against the Four Hundred who had
organized the previous oligarchy. Theramenes had done both, and accordingly,
when these laws were ratified, he became excluded from the franchise
and the Thirty had full power to put him to death. Theramenes having
been thus removed, they disarmed all the people except the Three Thousand,
and in every respect showed a great advance in cruelty and crime.
They also sent ambassadors to Lacedaemonian to blacken the character
of Theramenes and to ask for help; and the Lacedaemonians, in answer
to their appeal, sent Callibius as military governor with about seven
hundred troops, who came and occupied the Acropolis. 
Part 38
These events were followed by the occupation of Munichia by the exiles
from Phyle, and their victory over the Thirty and their partisans.
After the fight the party of the city retreated, and next day they
held a meeting in the marketplace and deposed the Thirty, and elected
ten citizens with full powers to bring the war to a termination. When,
however, the Ten had taken over the government they did nothing towards
the object for which they were elected, but sent envoys to Lacedaemonian
to ask for help and to borrow money. Further, finding that the citizens
who possessed the franchise were displeased at their proceedings,
they were afraid lest they should be deposed, and consequently, in
order to strike terror into them (in which design they succeeded),
they arrested Demaretus, one of the most eminent citizens, and put
him to death. This gave them a firm hold on the government, and they
also had the support of Callibius and his Peloponnesians, together
with several of the Knights; for some of the members of this class
were the most zealous among the citizens to prevent the return of
the exiles from Phyle. When, however, the party in Piraeus and Munichia
began to gain the upper hand in the war, through the defection of
the whole populace to them, the party in the city deposed the original
Ten, and elected another Ten, consisting of men of the highest repute.
Under their administration, and with their active and zealous cooperation,
the treaty of reconciliation was made and the populace returned to
the city. The most prominent members of this board were Rhinon of
Paeania and Phayllus of Acherdus, who, even before the arrival of
Pausanias, opened negotiations with the party in Piraeus, and after
his arrival seconded his efforts to bring about the return of the
exiles. For it was Pausanias, the king of the Lacedaemonians, who
brought the peace and reconciliation to a fulfillment, in conjunction
with the ten commissioners of arbitration who arrived later from Lacedaemonian,
at his own earnest request. Rhinon and his colleagues received a vote
of thanks for the goodwill shown by them to the people, and though
they received their charge under an oligarchy and handed in their
accounts under a democracy, no one, either of the party that had stayed
in the city or of the exiles that had returned from the Piraeus, brought
any complaint against them. On the contrary, Rhinon was immediately
elected general on account of his conduct in this office.
Part 39
This reconciliation was effected in the archonship of Eucleides, on
the following terms. All persons who, having remained in the city
during the troubles, were now anxious to leave it, were to be free
to settle at Eleusis, retaining their civil rights and possessing
full and independent powers of self-government, and with the free
enjoyment of their own personal property. The temple at Eleusis should
be common ground for both parties, and should be under the superintendence
of the Ceryces, and the Eumolpidae, according to primitive custom.
The settlers at Eleusis should not be allowed to enter Athens, nor
the people of Athens to enter Eleusis, except at the season of the
mysteries, when both parties should be free from these restrictions.
The secessionists should pay their share to the fund for the common
defence out of their revenues, just like all the other Athenians.
If any of the seceding party wished to take a house in Eleusis, the
people would help them to obtain the consent of the owner; but if
they could not come to terms, they should appoint three valuers on
either side, and the owner should receive whatever price they should
appoint. Of the inhabitants of Eleusis, those whom the secessionists
wished to remain should be allowed to do so. The list of those who
desired to secede should be made up within ten days after the taking
of the oaths in the case of persons already in the country, and their
actual departure should take place within twenty days; persons at
present out of the country should have the same terms allowed to them
after their return. No one who settled at Eleusis should be capable
of holding any office in Athens until he should again register himself
on the roll as a resident in the city. Trials for homicide, including
all cases in which one party had either killed or wounded another,
should be conducted according to ancestral practice. There should
be a general amnesty concerning past events towards all persons except
the Thirty, the Ten, the Eleven, and the magistrates in Piraeus; and
these too should be included if they should submit their accounts
in the usual way. Such accounts should be given by the magistrates
in Piraeus before a court of citizens rated in Piraeus, and by the
magistrates in the city before a court of those rated in the city.
On these terms those who wished to do so might secede. Each party
was to repay separately the money which it had borrowed for the war.
Part 40
When the reconciliation had taken place on these terms, those who
had fought on the side of the Thirty felt considerable apprehensions,
and a large number intended to secede. But as they put off entering
their names till the last moment, as people will do, Archinus, observing
their numbers, and being anxious to retain them as citizens, cut off
the remaining days during which the list should have remained open;
and in this way many persons were compelled to remain, though they
did so very unwillingly until they recovered confidence. This is one
point in which Archinus appears to have acted in a most statesmanlike
manner, and another was his subsequent prosecution of Thrasybulus
on the charge of illegality, for a motion by which he proposed to
confer the franchise on all who had taken part in the return from
Piraeus, although some of them were notoriously slaves. And yet a
third such action was when one of the returned exiles began to violate
the amnesty, whereupon Archinus haled him to the Council and persuaded
them to execute him without trial, telling them that now they would
have to show whether they wished to preserve the democracy and abide
by the oaths they had taken; for if they let this man escape they
would encourage others to imitate him, while if they executed him
they would make an example for all to learn by. And this was exactly
what happened; for after this man had been put to death no one ever
again broke the amnesty. On the contrary, the Athenians seem, both
in public and in private, to have behaved in the most unprecedentedly
admirable and public-spirited way with reference to the preceding
troubles. Not only did they blot out all memory of former offences,
but they even repaid to the Lacedaemonians out of the public purse
the money which the Thirty had borrowed for the war, although the
treaty required each party, the party of the city and the party of
Piraeus, to pay its own debts separately. This they did because they
thought it was a necessary first step in the direction of restoring
harmony; but in other states, so far from the democratic parties making
advances from their own possessions, they are rather in the habit
of making a general redistribution of the land. A final reconciliation
was made with the secessionists at Eleusis two years after the secession,
in the archonship of Xenaenetus. 
Part 41
This, however, took place at a later date; at the time of which we
are speaking the people, having secured the control of the state,
established the constitution which exists at the present day. Pythodorus
was Archon at the time, but the democracy seems to have assumed the
supreme power with perfect justice, since it had effected its own
return by its own exertions. This was the eleventh change which had
taken place in the constitution of Athens. The first modification
of the primaeval condition of things was when Ion and his companions
brought the people together into a community, for then the people
was first divided into the four tribes, and the tribe-kings were created.
Next, and first after this, having now some semblance of a constitution,
was that which took place in the reign of Theseus, consisting in a
slight deviation from absolute monarchy. After this came the constitution
formed under Draco, when the first code of laws was drawn up. The
third was that which followed the civil war, in the time of Solon;
from this the democracy took its rise. The fourth was the tyranny
of Pisistratus; the fifth the constitution of Cleisthenes, after the
overthrow of the tyrants, of a more democratic character than that
of Solon. The sixth was that which followed on the Persian wars, when
the Council of Areopagus had the direction of the state. The seventh,
succeeding this, was the constitution which Aristides sketched out,
and which Ephialtes brought to completion by overthrowing the Areopagite
Council; under this the nation, misled by the demagogues, made the
most serious mistakes in the interest of its maritime empire. The
eighth was the establishment of the Four Hundred, followed by the
ninth, the restored democracy. The tenth was the tyranny of the Thirty
and the Ten. The eleventh was that which followed the return from
Phyle and Piraeus; and this has continued from that day to this, with
continual accretions of power to the masses. The democracy has made
itself master of everything and administers everything by its votes
in the Assembly and by the law-courts, in which it holds the supreme
power. Even the jurisdiction of the Council has passed into the hands
of the people at large; and this appears to be a judicious change,
since small bodies are more open to corruption, whether by actual
money or influence, than large ones. At first they refused to allow
payment for attendance at the Assembly; but the result was that people
did not attend. Consequently, after the Prytanes had tried many devices
in vain in order to induce the populace to come and ratify the votes,
Agyrrhius, in the first instance, made a provision of one obol a day,
which Heracleides of Clazomenae, nicknamed 'the king', increased to
two obols, and Agyrrhius again to three. 
Part 42
The present state of the constitution is as follows. The franchise
is open to all who are of citizen birth by both parents. They are
enrolled among the demesmen at the age of eighteen. On the occasion
of their enrollment the demesmen give their votes on oath, first whether
the candidates appear to be of the age prescribed by the law (if not,
they are dismissed back into the ranks of the boys), and secondly
whether the candidate is free born and of such parentage as the laws
require. Then if they decide that he is not a free man, he appeals
to the law-courts, and the demesmen appoint five of their own number
to act as accusers; if the court decides that he has no right to be
enrolled, he is sold by the state as a slave, but if he wins his case
he has a right to be enrolled among the demesmen without further question.
After this the Council examines those who have been enrolled, and
if it comes to the conclusion that any of them is less than eighteen
years of age, it fines the demesmen who enrolled him. When the youths
(Ephebi) have passed this examination, their fathers meet by their
tribes, and appoint on oath three of their fellow tribesmen, over
forty years of age, who, in their opinion, are the best and most suitable
persons to have charge of the youths; and of these the Assembly elects
one from each tribe as guardian, together with a director, chosen
from the general body of Athenians, to control the while. Under the
charge of these persons the youths first of all make the circuit of
the temples; then they proceed to Piraeus, and some of them garrison
Munichia and some the south shore. The Assembly also elects two trainers,
with subordinate instructors, who teach them to fight in heavy armour,
to use the bow and javelin, and to discharge a catapult. The guardians
receive from the state a drachma apiece for their keep, and the youths
four obols apiece. Each guardian receives the allowance for all the
members of his tribe and buys the necessary provisions for the common
stock (they mess together by tribes), and generally superintends everything.
In this way they spend the first year. The next year, after giving
a public display of their military evolutions, on the occasion when
the Assembly meets in the theatre, they receive a shield and spear
from the state; after which they patrol the country and spend their
time in the forts. For these two years they are on garrison duty,
and wear the military cloak, and during this time they are exempt
from all taxes. They also can neither bring an action at law, nor
have one brought against them, in order that they may have no excuse
for requiring leave of absence; though exception is made in cases
of actions concerning inheritances and wards of state, or of any sacrificial
ceremony connected with the family. When the two years have elapsed
they thereupon take their position among the other citizens. Such
is the manner of the enrollment of the citizens and the training of
the youths. 
Part 43
All the magistrates that are concerned with the ordinary routine of
administration are elected by lot, except the Military Treasurer,
the Commissioners of the Theoric fund, and the Superintendent of Springs.
These are elected by vote, and hold office from one Panathenaic festival
to the next. All military officers are also elected by vote.
The Council of Five Hundred is elected by lot, fifty from each tribe.
Each tribe holds the office of Prytanes in turn, the order being determined
by lot; the first four serve for thirty-six days each, the last six
for thirty-five, since the reckoning is by lunar years. The Prytanes
for the time being, in the first place, mess together in the Tholus,
and receive a sum of money from the state for their maintenance; and,
secondly, they convene the meetings of the Council and the Assembly.
The Council they convene every day, unless it is a holiday, the Assembly
four times in each prytany. It is also their duty to draw up the programme
of the business of the Council and to decide what subjects are to
be dealt with on each particular da, and where the sitting is to be
held. They also draw up the programme for the meetings of the Assembly.
One of these in each prytany is called the 'sovereign' Assembly; in
this the people have to ratify the continuance of the magistrates
in office, if they are performing their duties properly, and to consider
the supply of corn and the defence of the country. On this day, too,
impeachments are introduced by those who wish to do so, the lists
of property confiscated by the state are read, and also applications
for inheritances and wards of state, so that nothing may pass unclaimed
without the cognizance of any person concerned. In the sixth prytany,
in addition to the business already stated, the question is put to
the vote whether it is desirable to hold a vote of ostracism or not;
and complaints against professional accusers, whether Athenian or
aliens domiciled in Athens, are received, to the number of not more
than three of either class, together with cases in which an individual
has made some promise to the people and has not performed it. Another
Assembly in each prytany is assigned to the hearing of petitions,
and at this meeting any one is free, on depositing the petitioner's
olive-branch, to speak to the people concerning any matter, public
or private. The two remaining meetings are devoted to all other subjects,
and the laws require them to deal with three questions connected with
religion, three connected with heralds and embassies, and three on
secular subjects. Sometimes questions are brought forward without
a preliminary vote of the Assembly to take them into consideration.
Heralds and envoys appear first before the Prytanes, and the bearers
of dispatches also deliver them to the same officials. 
Part 44
There is a single President of the Prytanes, elected by lot, who presides
for a night and a day; he may not hold the office for more than that
time, nor may the same individual hold it twice. He keeps the keys
of the sanctuaries in which the treasures and public records of the
state are preserved, and also the public seal; and he is bound to
remain in the Tholus, together with one-third of the Prytanes, named
by himself. Whenever the Prytanes convene a meeting of the Council
or Assembly, he appoints by lot nine Proedri, one from each tribe
except that which holds the office of Prytanes for the time being;
and out of these nine he similarly appoints one as President, and
hands over the programme for the meeting to them. They take it and
see to the preservation of order, put forward the various subjects
which are to be considered, decide the results of the votings, and
direct the proceedings generally. They also have power to dismiss
the meeting. No one may act as President more than once in the year,
but he may be a Proedrus once in each prytany. 
Elections to the offices of General and Hipparch and all other military
commands are held in the Assembly, in such manner as the people decide;
they are held after the sixth prytany by the first board of Prytanes
in whose term of office the omens are favourable. There has, however,
to be a preliminary consideration by the Council in this case also.
Part 45 
In former times the Council had full powers to inflict fines and
imprisonment and death; but when it had consigned Lysimachus to the
executioner, and he was sitting in the immediate expectation of death,
Eumelides of Alopece rescued him from its hands, maintaining that
no citizen ought to be put to death except on the decision of a court
of law. Accordingly a trial was held in a law-court, and Lysimachus
was acquitted, receiving henceforth the nickname of 'the man from
the drum-head'; and the people deprived the Council thenceforward
of the power to inflict death or imprisonment or fine, passing a law
that if the Council condemn any person for an offence or inflict a
fine, the Thesmothetae shall bring the sentence or fine before the
law-court, and the decision of the jurors shall be the final judgement
in the matter. 
The Council passes judgement on nearly all magistrates, especially
those who have the control of money; its judgement, however, is not
final, but is subject to an appeal to the lawcourts. Private individuals,
also, may lay an information against any magistrate they please for
not obeying the laws, but here too there is an appeal to the law-courts
if the Council declare the charge proved. The Council also examines
those who are to be its members for the ensuing year, and likewise
the nine Archons. Formerly the Council had full power to reject candidates
for office as unsuitable, but now they have an appeal to the law-courts.
In all these matters, therefore, the Council has no final jurisdiction.
It takes, however, preliminary cognizance of all matters brought before
the Assembly, and the Assembly cannot vote on any question unless
it has first been considered by the Council and placed on the programme
by the Prytanes; since a person who carries a motion in the Assembly
is liable to an action for illegal proposal on these grounds.
Part 46
The Council also superintends the triremes that are already in existence,
with their tackle and sheds, and builds new triremes or quadriremes,
whichever the Assembly votes, with tackle and sheds to match. The
Assembly appoints master-builders for the ships by vote; and if they
do not hand them over completed to the next Council, the old Council
cannot receive the customary donation-that being normally given to
it during its successor's term of office. For the building of the
triremes it appoints ten commissioners, chosen from its own members.
The Council also inspects all public buildings, and if it is of opinion
that the state is being defrauded, it reports the culprit to the Assembly,
and on condemnation hands him over to the law-courts. 
Part 47
The Council also co-operates with other magistrates in most of their
duties. First there are the treasurers of Athena, ten in number, elected
by lot, one from each tribe. According to the law of Solon-which is
still in force-they must be Pentacosiomedimni, but in point of fact
the person on whom the lot falls holds the office even though he be
quite a poor man. These officers take over charge of the statue of
Athena, the figures of Victory, and all the other ornaments of the
temple, together with the money, in the presence of the Council. Then
there are the Commissioners for Public Contracts (Poletae), ten in
number, one chosen by lot from each tribe, who farm out the public
contracts. They lease the mines and taxes, in conjunction with the
Military Treasurer and the Commissioners of the Theoric fund, in the
presence of the Council, and grant, to the persons indicated by the
vote of the Council, the mines which are let out by the state, including
both the workable ones, which are let for three years, and those which
are let under special agreements years. They also sell, in the presence
of the Council, the property of those who have gone into exile from
the court of the Areopagus, and of others whose goods have been confiscated,
and the nine Archons ratify the contracts. They also hand over to
the Council lists of the taxes which are farmed out for the year,
entering on whitened tablets the name of the lessee and the amount
paid. They make separate lists, first of those who have to pay their
instalments in each prytany, on ten several tablets, next of those
who pay thrice in the year, with a separate tablet for each instalment,
and finally of those who pay in the ninth prytany. They also draw
up a list of farms and dwellings which have been confiscated and sold
by order of the courts; for these too come within their province.
In the case of dwellings the value must be paid up in five years,
and in that of farms, in ten. The instalments are paid in the ninth
prytany. Further, the King-archon brings before the Council the leases
of the sacred enclosures, written on whitened tablets. These too are
leased for ten years, and the instalments are paid in the prytany;
consequently it is in this prytany that the greatest amount of money
is collected. The tablets containing the lists of the instalments
are carried into the Council, and the public clerk takes charge of
them. Whenever a payment of instalments is to be made he takes from
the pigeon-holes the precise list of the sums which are to be paid
and struck off on that day, and delivers it to the Receivers-General.
The rest are kept apart, in order that no sum may be struck off before
it is paid. 
Part 48
There are ten Receivers-General (Apodectae), elected by lot, one from
each tribe. These officers receive the tablets, and strike off the
instalments as they are paid, in the presence of the Council in the
Council-chamber, and give the tablets back to the public clerk. If
any one fails to pay his instalment, a note is made of it on the tablet;
and he is bound to pay double the amount of the deficiency, or, in
default, to be imprisoned. The Council has full power by the laws
to exact these payments and to inflict this imprisonment. They receive
all the instalments, therefore, on one day, and portion the money
out among the magistrates; and on the next day they bring up the report
of the apportionment, written on a wooden notice-board, and read it
out in the Council-chamber, after which they ask publicly in the Council
whether any one knows of any malpractice in reference to the apportionment,
on the part of either a magistrate or a private individual, and if
any one is charged with malpractice they take a vote on it.
The Council also elects ten Auditors (Logistae) by lot from its own
members, to audit the accounts of the magistrates for each prytany.
They also elect one Examiner of Accounts (Euthunus) by lot from each
tribe, with two assessors (Paredri) for each examiner, whose duty
it is to sit at the ordinary market hours, each opposite the statue
of the eponymous hero of his tribe; and if any one wishes to prefer
a charge, on either public or private grounds, against any magistrate
who has passed his audit before the law-courts, within three days
of his having so passed, he enters on a whitened tablet his own name
and that of the magistrate prosecuted, together with the malpractice
that is alleged against him. He also appends his claim for a penalty
of such amount as seems to him fitting, and gives in the record to
the Examiner. The latter takes it, and if after reading it he considers
it proved he hands it over, if a private case, to the local justices
who introduce cases for the tribe concerned, while if it is a public
case he enters it on the register of the Thesmothetae. Then, if the
Thesmothetae accept it, they bring the accounts of this magistrate
once more before the law-court, and the decision of the jury stands
as the final judgement. 
Part 49
The Council also inspects the horses belonging to the state. If a
man who has a good horse is found to keep it in bad condition, he
is mulcted in his allowance of corn; while those which cannot keep
up or which shy and will not stand steady, it brands with a wheel
on the jaw, and the horse so marked is disqualified for service. It
also inspects those who appear to be fit for service as scouts, and
any one whom it rejects is deprived of his horse. It also examines
the infantry who serve among the cavalry, and any one whom it rejects
ceases to receive his pay. The roll of the cavalry is drawn up by
the Commissioners of Enrolment (Catalogeis), ten in number, elected
by the Assembly by open vote. They hand over to the Hipparchs and
Phylarchs the list of those whom they have enrolled, and these officers
take it and bring it up before the Council, and there open the sealed
tablet containing the names of the cavalry. If any of those who have
been on the roll previously make affidavit that they are physically
incapable of cavalry service, they strike them out; then they call
up the persons newly enrolled, and if any one makes affidavit that
he is either physically or pecuniarily incapable of cavalry service
they dismiss him, but if no such affidavit is made the Council vote
whether the individual in question is suitable for the purpose or
not. If they vote in the affirmative his name is entered on the tablet;
if not, he is dismissed with the others. 
Formerly the Council used to decide on the plans for public buildings
and the contract for making the robe of Athena; but now this work
is done by a jury in the law-courts appointed by lot, since the Council
was considered to have shown favouritism in its decisions. The Council
also shares with the Military Treasurer the superintendence of the
manufacture of the images of Victory and the prizes at the Panathenaic
The Council also examines infirm paupers; for there is a law which
provides that persons possessing less than three minas, who are so
crippled as to be unable to do any work, are, after examination by
the Council, to receive two obols a day from the state for their support.
A treasurer is appointed by lot to attend to them. 
The Council also, speaking broadly, cooperates in most of the duties
of all the other magistrates; and this ends the list of the functions
of that body. 
Part 50
There are ten Commissioners for Repairs of Temples, elected by lot,
who receive a sum of thirty minas from the Receivers-General, and
therewith carry out the most necessary repairs in the temples.
There are also ten City Commissioners (Astynomi), of whom five hold
office in Piraeus and five in the city. Their duty is to see that
female flute-and harp-and lute-players are not hired at more than
two drachmas, and if more than one person is anxious to hire the same
girl, they cast lots and hire her out to the person to whom the lot
falls. They also provide that no collector of sewage shall shoot any
of his sewage within ten stradia of the walls; they prevent people
from blocking up the streets by building, or stretching barriers across
them, or making drain-pipes in mid-air with a discharge into the street,
or having doors which open outwards; they also remove the corpses
of those who die in the streets, for which purpose they have a body
of state slaves assigned to them. 
Part 51
Market Commissioners (Agoranomi) are elected by lot, five for Piraeus,
five for the city. Their statutory duty is to see that all articles
offered for sale in the market are pure and unadulterated.
Commissioners of Weights and Measures (Metronomi) are elected by lot,
five for the city, and five for Piraeus. They see that sellers use
fair weights and measures. 
Formerly there were ten Corn Commissioners (Sitophylaces), elected
by lot, five for Piraeus, and five for the city; but now there are
twenty for the city and fifteen for Piraeus. Their duties are, first,
to see that the unprepared corn in the market is offered for sale
at reasonable prices, and secondly, to see that the millers sell barley
meal at a price proportionate to that of barley, and that the bakers
sell their loaves at a price proportionate to that of wheat, and of
such weight as the Commissioners may appoint; for the law requires
them to fix the standard weight. 
There are ten Superintendents of the Mart, elected by lot, whose duty
is to superintend the Mart, and to compel merchants to bring up into
the city two-thirds of the corn which is brought by sea to the Corn
Part 52
The Eleven also are appointed by lot to take care of the prisoners
in the state gaol. Thieves, kidnappers, and pickpockets are brought
to them, and if they plead guilty they are executed, but if they deny
the charge the Eleven bring the case before the law-courts; if the
prisoners are acquitted, they release them, but if not, they then
execute them. They also bring up before the law-courts the list of
farms and houses claimed as state-property; and if it is decided that
they are so, they deliver them to the Commissioners for Public Contracts.
The Eleven also bring up informations laid against magistrates alleged
to be disqualified; this function comes within their province, but
some such cases are brought up by the Thesmothetae. 
There are also five Introducers of Cases (Eisagogeis), elected by
lot, one for each pair of tribes, who bring up the 'monthly' cases
to the law-courts. 'Monthly' cases are these: refusal to pay up a
dowry where a party is bound to do so, refusal to pay interest on
money borrowed at 12 per cent., or where a man desirous of setting
up business in the market has borrowed from another man capital to
start with; also cases of slander, cases arising out of friendly loans
or partnerships, and cases concerned with slaves, cattle, and the
office of trierarch, or with banks. These are brought up as 'monthly'
cases and are introduced by these officers; but the Receivers-General
perform the same function in cases for or against the farmers of taxes.
Those in which the sum concerned is not more than ten drachmas they
can decide summarily, but all above that amount they bring into the
law-courts as 'monthly' cases. 
Part 53
The Forty are also elected by lot, four from each tribe, before whom
suitors bring all other cases. Formerly they were thirty in number,
and they went on circuit through the demes to hear causes; but after
the oligarchy of the Thirty they were increased to forty. They have
full powers to decide cases in which the amount at issue does not
exceed ten drachmas, but anything beyond that value they hand over
to the Arbitrators. The Arbitrators take up the case, and, if they
cannot bring the parties to an agreement, they give a decision. If
their decision satisfies both parties, and they abide by it, the case
is at an end; but if either of the parties appeals to the law-courts,
the Arbitrators enclose the evidence, the pleadings, and the laws
quoted in the case in two urns, those of the plaintiff in the one,
and those of the defendant in the other. These they seal up and, having
attached to them the decision of the arbitrator, written out on a
tablet, place them in the custody of the four justices whose function
it is to introduce cases on behalf of the tribe of the defendant.
These officers take them and bring up the case before the law-court,
to a jury of two hundred and one members in cases up to the value
of a thousand drachmas, or to one of four hundred and one in cases
above that value. No laws or pleadings or evidence may be used except
those which were adduced before the Arbitrator, and have been enclosed
in the urns. 
The Arbitrators are persons in the sixtieth year of their age; this
appears from the schedule of the Archons and the Eponymi. There are
two classes of Eponymi, the ten who give their names to the tribes,
and the forty-two of the years of service. The youths, on being enrolled
among the citizens, were formerly registered upon whitened tablets,
and the names were appended of the Archon in whose year they were
enrolled, and of the Eponymus who had been in course in the preceding
year; at the present day they are written on a bronze pillar, which
stands in front of the Council-chamber, near the Eponymi of the tribes.
Then the Forty take the last of the Eponymi of the years of service,
and assign the arbitrations to the persons belonging to that year,
casting lots to determine which arbitrations each shall undertake;
and every one is compelled to carry through the arbitrations which
the lot assigns to him. The law enacts that any one who does not serve
as Arbitrator when he has arrived at the necessary age shall lose
his civil rights, unless he happens to be holding some other office
during that year, or to be out of the country. These are the only
persons who escape the duty. Any one who suffers injustice at the
hands of the Arbitrator may appeal to the whole board of Arbitrators,
and if they find the magistrate guilty, the law enacts that he shall
lose his civil rights. The persons thus condemned have, however, in
their turn an appeal. The Eponymi are also used in reference to military
expeditions; when the men of military age are despatched on service,
a notice is put up stating that the men from such-and such an Archon
and Eponymus to such-and such another Archon and Eponymus are to go
on the expedition. 
Part 54
The following magistrates also are elected by lot: Five Commissioners
of Roads (Hodopoei), who, with an assigned body of public slaves,
are required to keep the roads in order: and ten Auditors, with ten
assistants, to whom all persons who have held any office must give
in their accounts. These are the only officers who audit the accounts
of those who are subject to examination, and who bring them up for
examination before the law-courts. If they detect any magistrate in
embezzlement, the jury condemn him for theft, and he is obliged to
repay tenfold the sum he is declared to have misappropriated. If they
charge a magistrate with accepting bribes and the jury convict him,
they fine him for corruption, and this sum too is repaid tenfold.
Or if they convict him of unfair dealing, he is fined on that charge,
and the sum assessed is paid without increase, if payment is made
before the ninth prytany, but otherwise it is doubled. A tenfold fine
is not doubled. 
The Clerk of the prytany, as he is called, is also elected by lot.
He has the charge of all public documents, and keeps the resolutions
which are passed by the Assembly, and checks the transcripts of all
other official papers and attends at the sessions of the Council.
Formerly he was elected by open vote, and the most distinguished and
trustworthy persons were elected to the post, as is known from the
fact that the name of this officer is appended on the pillars recording
treaties of alliance and grants of consulship and citizenship. Now,
however, he is elected by lot. There is, in addition, a Clerk of the
Laws, elected by lot, who attends at the sessions of the Council;
and he too checks the transcript of all the laws. The Assembly also
elects by open vote a clerk to read documents to it and to the Council;
but he has no other duty except that of reading aloud. 
The Assembly also elects by lot the Commissioners of Public Worship
(Hieropoei) known as the Commissioners for Sacrifices, who offer the
sacrifices appointed by oracle, and, in conjunction with the seers,
take the auspices whenever there is occasion. It also elects by lot
ten others, known as Annual Commissioners, who offer certain sacrifices
and administer all the quadrennial festivals except the Panathenaea.
There are the following quadrennial festivals: first that of Delos
(where there is also a sexennial festival), secondly the Brauronia,
thirdly the Heracleia, fourthly the Eleusinia, and fifthly the Panathenaea;
and no two of these are celebrated in the same place. To these the
Hephaestia has now been added, in the archonship of Cephisophon.
An Archon is also elected by lot for Salamis, and a Demarch for Piraeus.
These officers celebrate the Dionysia in these two places, and appoint
Choregi. In Salamis, moreover, the name of the Archon is publicly
Part 55
All the foregoing magistrates are elected by lot, and their powers
are those which have been stated. To pass on to the nine Archons,
as they are called, the manner of their appointment from the earliest
times has been described already. At the present day six Thesmothetae
are elected by lot, together with their clerk, and in addition to
these an Archon, a King, and a Polemarch. One is elected from each
tribe. They are examined first of all by the Council of Five Hundred,
with the exception of the clerk. The latter is examined only in the
lawcourt, like other magistrates (for all magistrates, whether elected
by lot or by open vote, are examined before entering on their offices);
but the nine Archons are examined both in the Council and again in
the law-court. Formerly no one could hold the office if the Council
rejected him, but now there is an appeal to the law-court, which is
the final authority in the matter of the examination. When they are
examined, they are asked, first, 'Who is your father, and of what
deme? who is your father's father? who is your mother? who is your
mother's father, and of what deme?' Then the candidate is asked whether
he possesses an ancestral Apollo and a household Zeus, and where their
sanctuaries are; next if he possesses a family tomb, and where; then
if he treats his parents well, and pays his taxes, and has served
on the required military expeditions. When the examiner has put these
questions, he proceeds, 'Call the witnesses to these facts'; and when
the candidate has produced his witnesses, he next asks, 'Does any
one wish to make any accusation against this man?' If an accuser appears,
he gives the parties an opportunity of making their accusation and
defence, and then puts it to the Council to pass the candidate or
not, and to the law-court to give the final vote. If no one wishes
to make an accusation, he proceeds at once to the vote. Formerly a
single individual gave the vote, but now all the members are obliged
to vote on the candidates, so that if any unprincipled candidate has
managed to get rid of his accusers, it may still be possible for him
to be disqualified before the law-court. When the examination has
been thus completed, they proceed to the stone on which are the pieces
of the victims, and on which the Arbitrators take oath before declaring
their decisions, and witnesses swear to their testimony. On this stone
the Archons stand, and swear to execute their office uprightly and
according to the laws, and not to receive presents in respect of the
performance of their duties, or, if they do, to dedicate a golden
statue. When they have taken this oath they proceed to the Acropolis,
and there they repeat it; after this they enter upon their office.
Part 56
The Archon, the King, and the Polemarch have each two assessors, nominated
by themselves. These officers are examined in the lawcourt before
they begin to act, and give in accounts on each occasion of their
As soon as the Archon enters office, he begins by issuing a proclamation
that whatever any one possessed before he entered into office, that
he shall possess and hold until the end of his term. Next he assigns
Choregi to the tragic poets, choosing three of the richest persons
out of the whole body of Athenians. Formerly he used also to assign
five Choregi to the comic poets, but now the tribes provide the Choregi
for them. Then he receives the Choregi who have been appointed by
the tribes for the men's and boys' choruses and the comic poets at
the Dionysia, and for the men's and boys' choruses at the Thargelia
(at the Dionysia there is a chorus for each tribe, but at the Thargelia
one between two tribes, each tribe bearing its share in providing
it); he transacts the exchanges of properties for them, and reports
any excuses that are tendered, if any one says that he has already
borne this burden, or that he is exempt because he has borne a similar
burden and the period of his exemption has not yet expired, or that
he is not of the required age; since the Choregus of a boys' chorus
must be over forty years of age. He also appoints Choregi for the
festival at Delos, and a chief of the mission for the thirty-oar boat
which conveys the youths thither. He also superintends sacred processions,
both that in honour of Asclepius, when the initiated keep house, and
that of the great Dionysia-the latter in conjunction with the Superintendents
of that festival. These officers, ten in number, were formerly elected
by open vote in the Assembly, and used to provide for the expenses
of the procession out of their private means; but now one is elected
by lot from each tribe, and the state contributes a hundred minas
for the expenses. The Archon also superintends the procession at the
Thargelia, and that in honour of Zeus the Saviour. He also manages
the contests at the Dionysia and the Thargelia. 
These, then, are the festivals which he superintends. The suits and
indictments which come before him, and which he, after a preliminary
inquiry, brings up before the lawcourts, are as follows. Injury to
parents (for bringing these actions the prosecutor cannot suffer any
penalty); injury to orphans (these actions lie against their guardians);
injury to a ward of state (these lie against their guardians or their
husbands), injury to an orphan's estate (these too lie against the
guardians); mental derangement, where a party charges another with
destroying his own property through unsoundness of mind; for appointment
of liquidators, where a party refuses to divide property in which
others have a share; for constituting a wardship; for determining
between rival claims to a wardship; for granting inspection of property
to which another party lays claim; for appointing oneself as guardian;
and for determining disputes as to inheritances and wards of state.
The Archon also has the care of orphans and wards of state, and of
women who, on the death of their husbands, declare themselves to be
with child; and he has power to inflict a fine on those who offend
against the persons under his charge, or to bring the case before
the law-courts. He also leases the houses of orphans and wards of
state until they reach the age of fourteen, and takes mortgages on
them; and if the guardians fail to provide the necessary food for
the children under their charge, he exacts it from them. Such are
the duties of the Archon. 
Part 57
The King in the first place superintends the mysteries, in conjunction
with the Superintendents of Mysteries. The latter are elected in the
Assembly by open vote, two from the general body of Athenians, one
from the Eumolpidae, and one from the Ceryces. Next, he superintends
the Lenaean Dionysia, which consists of a procession and a contest.
The procession is ordered by the King and the Superintendents in conjunction;
but the contest is managed by the King alone. He also manages all
the contests of the torch-race; and to speak broadly, he administers
all the ancestral sacrifices. Indictments for impiety come before
him, or any disputes between parties concerning priestly rites; and
he also determines all controversies concerning sacred rites for the
ancient families and the priests. All actions for homicide come before
him, and it is he that makes the proclamation requiring polluted persons
to keep away from sacred ceremonies. Actions for homicide and wounding
are heard, if the homicide or wounding be willful, in the Areopagus;
so also in cases of killing by poison, and of arson. These are the
only cases heard by that Council. Cases of unintentional homicide,
or of intent to kill, or of killing a slave or a resident alien or
a foreigner, are heard by the court of Palladium. When the homicide
is acknowledged, but legal justification is pleaded, as when a man
takes an adulterer in the act, or kills another by mistake in battle,
or in an athletic contest, the prisoner is tried in the court of Delphinium.
If a man who is in banishment for a homicide which admits of reconcilliation
incurs a further charge of killing or wounding, he is tried in Phreatto,
and he makes his defence from a boat moored near the shore. All these
cases, except those which are heard in the Areopagus, are tried by
the Ephetae on whom the lot falls. The King introduces them, and the
hearing is held within sacred precincts and in the open air. Whenever
the King hears a case he takes off his crown. The person who is charged
with homicide is at all other times excluded from the temples, nor
is it even lawful for him to enter the market-place; but on the occasion
of his trial he enters the temple and makes his defence. If the actual
offender is unknown, the writ runs against 'the doer of the deed'.
The King and the tribe-kings also hear the cases in which the guilt
rests on inanimate objects and the lower animal. 
Part 58
The Polemarch performs the sacrifices to Artemis the huntress and
to Enyalius, and arranges the contest at the funeral of those who
have fallen in war, and makes offerings to the memory of Harmodius
and Aristogeiton. Only private actions come before him, namely those
in which resident aliens, both ordinary and privileged, and agents
of foreign states are concerned. It is his duty to receive these cases
and divide them into ten groups, and assign to each tribe the group
which comes to it by lot; after which the magistrates who introduce
cases for the tribe hand them over to the Arbitrators. The Polemarch,
however, brings up in person cases in which an alien is charged with
deserting his patron or neglecting to provide himself with one, and
also of inheritances and wards of state where aliens are concerned;
and in fact, generally, whatever the Archon does for citizens, the
Polemarch does for aliens. 
Part 59
The Thesmothetae in the first place have the power of prescribing
on what days the lawcourts are to sit, and next of assigning them
to the several magistrates; for the latter must follow the arrangement
which the Thesmothetae assign. Moreover they introduce impeachments
before the Assembly, and bring up all votes for removal from office,
challenges of a magistrate's conduct before the Assembly, indictments
for illegal proposals, or for proposing a law which is contrary to
the interests of the state, complaints against Proedri or their president
for their conduct in office, and the accounts presented by the generals.
All indictments also come before them in which a deposit has to be
made by the prosecutor, namely, indictments for concealment of foreign
origin, for corrupt evasion of foreign origin (when a man escapes
the disqualification by bribery), for blackmailing accusations, bribery,
false entry of another as a state debtor, false testimony to the service
of a summons, conspiracy to enter a man as a state debtor, corrupt
removal from the list of debtors, and adultery. They also bring up
the examinations of all magistrates, and the rejections by the demes
and the condemnations by the Council. Moreover they bring up certain
private suits in cases of merchandise and mines, or where a slave
has slandered a free man. It is they also who cast lots to assign
the courts to the various magistrates, whether for private or public
cases. They ratify commercial treaties, and bring up the cases which
arise out of such treaties; and they also bring up cases of perjury
from the Areopagus. The casting of lots for the jurors is conducted
by all the nine Archons, with the clerk to the Thesmothetae as the
tenth, each performing the duty for his own tribe. Such are the duties
of the nine Archons. 
Part 60
There are also ten Commissioners of Games (Athlothetae), elected by
lot, one from each tribe. These officers, after passing an examination,
serve for four years; and they manage the Panathenaic procession,
the contest in music and that in gymnastic, and the horse-race; they
also provide the robe of Athena and, in conjunction with the Council,
the vases, and they present the oil to the athletes. This oil is collected
from the sacred olives. The Archon requisitions it from the owners
of the farms on which the sacred olives grow, at the rate of three-quarters
of a pint from each plant. Formerly the state used to sell the fruit
itself, and if any one dug up or broke down one of the sacred olives,
he was tried by the Council of Areopagus, and if he was condemned,
the penalty was death. Since, however, the oil has been paid by the
owner of the farm, the procedure has lapsed, though the law remains;
and the oil is a state charge upon the property instead of being taken
from the individual plants. When, then, the Archon has collected the
oil for his year of office, he hands it over to the Treasurers to
preserve in the Acropolis, and he may not take his seat in the Areopagus
until he has paid over to the Treasurers the full amount. The Treasurers
keep it in the Acropolis until the Panathenaea, when they measure
it out to the Commissioners of Games, and they again to the victorious
competitors. The prizes for the victors in the musical contest consist
of silver and gold, for the victors in manly vigour, of shields, and
for the victors in the gymnastic contest and the horse-race, of oil.
Part 61
All officers connected with military service are elected by open vote.
In the first place, ten Generals (Strategi), who were formerly elected
one from each tribe, but now are chosen from the whole mass of citizens.
Their duties are assigned to them by open vote; one is appointed to
command the heavy infantry, and leads them if they go out to war;
one to the defence of the country, who remains on the defensive, and
fights if there is war within the borders of the country; two to Piraeus,
one of whom is assigned to Munichia, and one to the south shore, and
these have charge of the defence of the Piraeus; and one to superintend
the symmories, who nominates the trierarchs arranges exchanges of
properties for them, and brings up actions to decide on rival claims
in connexion with them. The rest are dispatched to whatever business
may be on hand at the moment. The appointment of these officers is
submitted for confirmation in each prytany, when the question is put
whether they are considered to be doing their duty. If any officer
is rejected on this vote, he is tried in the lawcourt, and if he is
found guilty the people decide what punishment or fine shall be inflicted
on him; but if he is acquitted he resumes his office. The Generals
have full power, when on active service, to arrest any one for insubordination,
or to cashier him publicly, or to inflict a fine; the latter is, however,
There are also ten Taxiarchs, one from each tribe, elected by open
vote; and each commands his own tribesmen and appoints captains of
companies (Lochagi). There are also two Hipparchs, elected by open
vote from the whole mass of the citizens, who command the cavalry,
each taking five tribes. They have the same powers as the Generals
have in respect of the infantry, and their appointments are also subject
to confirmation. There are also ten Phylarchs, elected by open vote,
one from each tribe, to command the cavalry, as the Taxiarchs do the
infantry. There is also a Hipparch for Lemnos, elected by open vote,
who has charge of the cavalry in Lemnos. There is also a treasurer
of the Paralus, and another of the Ammonias, similarly elected.
Part 62
Of the magistrates elected by lot, in former times some including
the nine Archons, were elected out of the tribe as a whole, while
others, namely those who are now elected in the Theseum, were apportioned
among the demes; but since the demes used to sell the elections, these
magistrates too are now elected from the whole tribe, except the members
of the Council and the guards of the dockyards, who are still left
to the demes. 
Pay is received for the following services. First the members of the
Assembly receive a drachma for the ordinary meetings, and nine obols
for the 'sovereign' meeting. Then the jurors at the law-courts receive
three obols; and the members of the Council five obols. They Prytanes
receive an allowance of an obol for their maintenance. The nine Archons
receive four obols apiece for maintenance, and also keep a herald
and a flute-player; and the Archon for Salamis receives a drachma
a day. The Commissioners for Games dine in the Prytaneum during the
month of Hecatombaeon in which the Panathenaic festival takes place,
from the fourteenth day onwards. The Amphictyonic deputies to Delos
receive a drachma a day from the exchequer of Delos. Also all magistrates
sent to Samos, Scyros, Lemnos, or Imbros receive an allowance for
their maintenance. The military offices may be held any number of
times, but none of the others more than once, except the membership
of the Council, which may be held twice. 
Part 63
The juries for the law-courts are chosen by lot by the nine Archons,
each for their own tribe, and by the clerk to the Thesmothetae for
the tenth. There are ten entrances into the courts, one for each tribe;
twenty rooms in which the lots are drawn, two for each tribe; a hundred
chests, ten for each tribe; other chests, in which are placed the
tickets of the jurors on whom the lot falls; and two vases. Further,
staves, equal in number to the jurors required, are placed by the
side of each entrance; and counters are put into one vase, equal in
number to the staves. These are inscribed with letters of the alphabet
beginning with the eleventh (lambda), equal in number to the courts
which require to be filled. All persons above thirty years of age
are qualified to serve as jurors, provided they are not debtors to
the state and have not lost their civil rights. If any unqualified
person serves as juror, an information is laid against him, and he
is brought before the court; and, if he is convicted, the jurors assess
the punishment or fine which they consider him to deserve. If he is
condemned to a money fine, he must be imprisoned until he has paid
up both the original debt, on account of which the information was
laid against him, and also the fine which the court as imposed upon
him. Each juror has his ticket of boxwood, on which is inscribed his
name, with the name of his father and his deme, and one of the letters
of the alphabet up to kappa; for the jurors in their several tribes
are divided into ten sections, with approximately an equal number
in each letter. When the Thesmothetes has decided by lot which letters
are required to attend at the courts, the servant puts up above each
court the letter which has been assigned to it by the lot.
Part 64
The ten chests above mentioned are placed in front of the entrance
used by each tribe, and are inscribed with the letters of the alphabet
from alpha to kappa. The jurors cast in their tickets, each into the
chest on which is inscribed the letter which is on his ticket; then
the servant shakes them all up, and the Archon draws one ticket from
each chest. The individual so selected is called the Ticket-hanger
(Empectes), and his function is to hang up the tickets out of his
chest on the bar which bears the same letter as that on the chest.
He is chosen by lot, lest, if the Ticket-hanger were always the same
person, he might tamper with the results. There are five of these
bars in each of the rooms assigned for the lot-drawing. Then the Archon
casts in the dice and thereby chooses the jurors from each tribe,
room by room. The dice are made of brass, coloured black or white;
and according to the number of jurors required, so many white dice
are put in, one for each five tickets, while the remainder are black,
in the same proportion. As the Archon draws out the dice, the crier
calls out the names of the individuals chosen. The Ticket-hanger is
included among those selected. Each juror, as he is chosen and answers
to his name, draws a counter from the vase, and holding it out with
the letter uppermost shows it first to the presiding Archon; and he,
when he has seen it, throws the ticket of the juror into the chest
on which is inscribed the letter which is on the counter, so that
the juror must go into the court assigned to him by lot, and not into
one chosen by himself, and that it may be impossible for any one to
collect the jurors of his choice into any particular court. For this
purpose chests are placed near the Archon, as many in number as there
are courts to be filled that day, bearing the letters of the courts
on which the lot has fallen. 
Part 65
The juror thereupon, after showing his counter again to the attendant,
passes through the barrier into the court. The attendant gives him
a staff of the same colour as the court bearing the letter which is
on his counter, so as to ensure his going into the court assigned
to him by lot; since, if he were to go into any other, he would be
betrayed by the colour of his staff. Each court has a certain colour
painted on the lintel of the entrance. Accordingly the juror, bearing
his staff, enters the court which has the same colour as his staff,
and the same letter as his counter. As he enters, he receives a voucher
from the official to whom this duty has been assigned by lot. So with
their counters and their staves the selected jurors take their seats
in the court, having thus completed the process of admission. The
unsuccessful candidates receive back their tickets from the Ticket-hangers.
The public servants carry the chests from each tribe, one to each
court, containing the names of the members of the tribe who are in
that court, and hand them over to the officials assigned to the duty
of giving back their tickets to the jurors in each court, so that
these officials may call them up by name and pay them their fee.
Part 66
When all the courts are full, two ballot boxes are placed in the first
court, and a number of brazen dice, bearing the colours of the several
courts, and other dice inscribed with the names of the presiding magistrates.
Then two of the Thesmothetae, selected by lot, severally throw the
dice with the colours into one box, and those with the magistrates'
names into the other. The magistrate whose name is first drawn is
thereupon proclaimed by the crier as assigned for duty in the court
which is first drawn, and the second in the second, and similarly
with the rest. The object of this procedure is that no one may know
which court he will have, but that each may take the court assigned
to him by lot. 
When the jurors have come in, and have been assigned to their respective
courts, the presiding magistrate in each court draws one ticket out
of each chest (making ten in all, one out of each tribe), and throws
them into another empty chest. He then draws out five of them, and
assigns one to the superintendence of the water-clock, and the other
four to the telling of the votes. This is to prevent any tampering
beforehand with either the superintendent of the clock or the tellers
of the votes, and to secure that there is no malpractice in these
respects. The five who have not been selected for these duties receive
from them a statement of the order in which the jurors shall receive
their fees, and of the places where the several tribes shall respectively
gather in the court for this purpose when their duties are completed;
the object being that the jurors may be broken up into small groups
for the reception of their pay, and not all crowd together and impede
one another. 
Part 67
These preliminaries being concluded, the cases are called on. If it
is a day for private cases, the private litigants are called. Four
cases are taken in each of the categories defined in the law, and
the litigants swear to confine their speeches to the point at issue.
If it is a day for public causes, the public litigants are called,
and only one case is tried. Water-clocks are provided, having small
supply-tubes, into which the water is poured by which the length of
the pleadings is regulated. Ten gallons are allowed for a case in
which an amount of more than five thousand drachmas is involved, and
three for the second speech on each side. When the amount is between
one and five thousand drachmas, seven gallons are allowed for the
first speech and two for the second; when it is less than one thousand,
five and two. Six gallons are allowed for arbitrations between rival
claimants, in which there is no second speech. The official chosen
by lot to superintend the water-clock places his hand on the supply
tube whenever the clerk is about to read a resolution or law or affidavit
or treaty. When, however, a case is conducted according to a set measurement
of the day, he does not stop the supply, but each party receives an
equal allowance of water. The standard of measurement is the length
of the days in the month Poseideon.... The measured day is employed
in cases when imprisonment, death, exile, loss of civil rights, or
confiscation of goods is assigned as the penalty. 
Part 68
Most of the courts consist of 500 members...; and when it is necessary
to bring public cases before a jury of 1,000 members, two courts combine
for the purpose, the most important cases of all are brought 1,500
jurors, or three courts. The ballot balls are made of brass with stems
running through the centre, half of them having the stem pierced and
the other half solid. When the speeches are concluded, the officials
assigned to the taking of the votes give each juror two ballot balls,
one pierced and one solid. This is done in full view of the rival
litigants, to secure that no one shall receive two pierced or two
solid balls. Then the official designated for the purpose takes away
the jurors staves, in return for which each one as he records his
vote receives a brass voucher market with the numeral 3 (because he
gets three obols when he gives it up). This is to ensure that all
shall vote; since no one can get a voucher unless he votes. Two urns,
one of brass and the other of wood, stand in the court, in distinct
spots so that no one may surreptitiously insert ballot balls; in these
the jurors record their votes. The brazen urn is for effective votes,
the wooden for unused votes; and the brazen urn has a lid pierced
so as to take only one ballot ball, in order that no one may put in
two at a time. 
When the jurors are about to vote, the crier demands first whether
the litigants enter a protest against any of the evidence; for no
protest can be received after the voting has begun. Then he proclaims
again, 'The pierced ballot for the plaintiff, the solid for the defendant';
and the juror, taking his two ballot balls from the stand, with his
hand closed over the stem so as not to show either the pierced or
the solid ballot to the litigants, casts the one which is to count
into the brazen urn, and the other into the wooden urn. 
Part 69
When all the jurors have voted, the attendants take the urn containing
the effective votes and discharge them on to a reckoning board having
as many cavities as there are ballot balls, so that the effective
votes, whether pierced or solid, may be plainly displayed and easily
counted. Then the officials assigned to the taking of the votes tell
them off on the board, the solid in one place and the pierced in another,
and the crier announces the numbers of the votes, the pierced ballots
being for the prosecutor and the solid for the defendant. Whichever
has the majority is victorious; but if the votes are equal the verdict
is for the defendant. Each juror receives two ballots, and uses one
to record his vote, and throws the other away. 
Then, if damages have to be awarded, they vote again in the same way,
first returning their pay-vouchers and receiving back their staves.
Half a gallon of water is allowed to each party for the discussion
of the damages. Finally, when all has been completed in accordance
with the law, the jurors receive their pay in the order assigned by
the lot. 
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